the practitioner who performs music, as distinguished from the musicus; in a medieval monastery or nunnery the person specially trained to lead the music of the community who sat with one of the two groups and led the singing.
a genre of sacred vocal music that employs the text and tune of a pre-existing Lutheran chorale in all or several of its movements
a recitative that features a full orchestra accompaniment; it appears occasionally in the sacred vocal music of Bach, but was used more extensively in the operas of Gluck and later composers.
a technique in which all the instrumental parts double the vocal lines.
a large-scale musical depiction of Christ's crucifixion as recorded in the Gospels; an oratorio on the subject of the passion.
an association of musicians in the eighteenth-century Germany, consisting usually university students, who came together voluntarily to play the latest music in a public setting such as a large scale cafe' or beer hall.
a virtuosic set of thirty variations preceded and concluded by a simple air, the air and each variation based on the same thirty-two-bar harmonic pattern.
The Musical Offering
a collection of pieces: a trio sonata, two fugues (called ricercars), and ten puzzle cannons made for the royal family for King Frederick the Great of Prussia.
The Art of Fugue
a collection of fugues and canons, all derived from the same subject, and all apparently intended for keyboard (BWV 1080)
Bach's last composition, and perhaps the grandest of all the large-scale projects of the Baroque Latin Mass Tradition.