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The American Pageant, 13th Edition; AP Edition

Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan

Wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History, which argued that control of the sea was the key to world dominance;it stimulated the naval race among the great powers.

Reverend Josiah Strong

Author of "Our Country: Its possible Future and Its present crisis", summoned Americans to spread their religion and values to the "backward" peoples

Annexation of Hawaii

U.S. wanted Hawaii for business and so Hawaiian sugar could be sold in the U.S. duty free, Queen Liliuokalani opposed so Sanford B. Dole overthrew her in 1893, William McKinley convinced Congress to annex Hawaii in 1898

Yellow Journalism

Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers

Dupoy de Lome

Spanish minister, in Washington, he wrote a letter where he called President McKinley weak and bitter. The letter was stolen and delivered to Hearst, who played it up using yellow journalism.

Maine

A ship stationed near Cuba which exploded on February 15, 1898. The explosion was blamed on the Spanish, and provided a reason for starting the Spanish-American War. Evidence to the contrary was ignored in the rush to War

Teller Amendment

Act of Congress in 1898 that stated that when the United States had rid Cuba of Spanish rule, Cuba would be granted its freedom. It prevented Cuba from turning hostile towards the U.S.

Rough Riders

volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish-American War

Theodore Roosevelt

26th President of the United States, hero of the Spanish-American War; Panama Canal was built during his administration; said 'Speak softly but carry a big stick' (1858-1919)

Guam

Pacific island that was acquired by the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War

Puerto Rico

Given to the US by Spain as a payment for the cost of the Spanish American War

Philippines

Spanish colony in the Pacific whom the US helped free from the Spanish, but soon after took as their own colony

Anti-Imperialist League

objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case; the Philippines were annexed in 1900

Foraker Act of 1900

Congress accorded the Puerto Ricans a limited degree of popular gov't and in 1917, granted then US citizenship. Worked wonders in education, sanitation, transportation, + more

Insular Cases

Constitution didn't have full authority of how to deal with islands (Puerto Ricans & Cubans subject to American rule, but didn't have all rights)

Platt Amendment

This amendment to the new Cuban constitution authorized U.S. intervention in Cuba to protect its interests. Cuba pledged not to make treates with other countries that might compromise its independence, and it granted naval bases to the United States, most notable being Guantanamo Bay.

Secretary of State John Hay

Created the Open Door Note

Open Door Note

Message delivered by John Hay in the summer of 1899 to the nations of the world, begging them to respect Chinese rights and influence in the spirit of fair competition.

Boxers

A Chinese secret society that blamed the country's ills on foreigners, especially missionaries, and rose in rebellion in 1899-1900

Mark Hanna

An industrialist and Republican politician from Ohio. The campaign manager of McKinley in the 1896, in what is considered the forerunner of the modern political campaign, and subsequently became one of the most powerful members of the U.S. Senate.

William Jennings Bryan

United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)

Gentlemen's Agreement

An agreement with Japan where Japan agreed to limit immigration, and Roosevelt agreed to discuss with the San Francisco School Board that segregation of Japanese children in school would be stopped. The agreement prevented a war that would have been caused by California, who was in Japan's eyes, oppressing their children.

Root-Takahira Agreement

Pledged the U.S. and Japan to respect each other's territorial possessions in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door Policy in China.

Richard Olney

Secretary of State under Cleveland, he was authorized by the President to deliver a message to London that the British were ignoring the Monroe Doctrine in their attempt to dominate Venezuela.

Queen Liliuokalani

the Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests

Valeriano "Butcher" Weyler

Spanish General in Cuba who herded many civilians into barbed-wire reconcentration camps so they could not help the insurrectos. Called "Butcher Weyler" because hundreds of thousands of people died in his concentration camps

Commodore George Dewey

Commodore during the Spanish-American War who captured the Philippines and Guam. Followed Roosevelt's order to attack Spanish forces in the Philippines when war was declared; completely destroyed the Spanish fleet stationed at Manila Bay. His victory shed light on the adjusted purpose of war with Spain, from just freeing Cuba to stripping Spain of all of its colonies.

Emilio Aguinaldo

Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901.

General William R. Shafter

The grossly overweight commander of the American forces invading Cuba in 1898.

Colonel Leonard Wood

commanded the Rough Riders.

Rudyard Kipling

wrote about "The White Man's Burden," urging America to keep the Philippines and "civilize them."

William H. Taft

Roosevelt's handpicked successor. Taft was a Republican lawyer from Ohio and was associated with the "Old Guard" or very conservative politicians. He favored protective tariffss and trust regulation.

Dr. Walter Reed

Doctor who was the head of the Army's Yellow Fever Commission. He proved that Yellow Fever and Malaria was transmitted by Mosquitoes.

Big Sister

James G. Blaine's policy, which sought better relations with Latin America

benevolent assimilation

McKinley and the U.S. were trying to assimilate the Philippines to help them become better. American dollars went to the Philippines to improve roads, sanitation, and public health. Although the U.S. might have looked intrusive, they were actually trying to improve the condition of the Philippines.

Panama Revolution

The Isthmus of Panama had been part of Columbia. U.S. tried to negotiate with Columbia to build the Panama Canal. Columbia refused, so U.S. encouraged Panama to revolt. Example of Big Stick diplomacy.

Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty

Agreement in 1903 Agreement that gave the United States unending sovereignty over a 10 mile wide canal across the Isthmus of Panama

Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force

Yellow Peril

[aka Yellow Terror] color metaphor for race that originated in late-19th with immigration of Chinese laborers. term refers to skin color of East Asians and the belief that mass immigration of Asians threatened white wages and standards of living

Great White Fleet

16 American battleships, painted white, sent around the world to display American naval power.

Bad neighbor

Latin America's view on America

Arbitration

The act of having a conflict resolved by an independent 3rd party; "Teddy was an arbitration to Russia and Japan."

Scorched-Earth Policy

Burning live stock and crops to prevent the enemy from living off the land

Re concentration

Forced movement of large numbers of people into detention camps for military and political reasons

Atrocity

an act of extreme cruelty

Proviso

a condition; a stipulation

hostage

a prisoner who is held by one party to insure that another party will meet specified terms

Americanization

assimilation into American culture

Sphere of Influence

the geographical area in which one nation is very influential

partition

the act of dividing or partitioning

blue blood

a member of the aristocracy

bellicose

having or showing a ready disposition to fight

preparedness

the state of having been made ready or prepared for use or action (especially military action)

corolarry

a proposition that follows from one already chosen

Idemnity

A payment for damage or loss

Grover Cleveland

22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes

William R. Hearst

Vigorous promoter of sensationalistic anti-Spanish propaganda and eager advocate of imperialistic war

William McKinley

25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist

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