body of knowledge and a way of doing things; we learn about how the world works through intellectual and social activities
study of living things
asking a question about the world and finding out an answer or explanation
what is the purpose of scientific inquiry
to develop explanations of natural phenomena in a continuing and creative process
what does scientific inquiry involve?
asking questions, observing and inferring, experimenting, collecting and organizing data, finding evidence and drawing conclusions, repeating the experiment several times, peer review, locating information from different sources, making judgements about the reliability of the source of information
how are scientific explanations built?
They are built by combining evidence that can be observed with what people already know about the world.
what is an observation?
any information that is collected with any of the five senses
conclusion or deduction based on a observation
influenced by an assumption that may or may not be correct
belief that something is true
when are scientific explanations accepted?
They are accepted when they are consistent with experimental and observational evidence and when they lead to accurate predictions.
can scientific explanations change or improve?
what are well accepted theories
well accepted theories are supported by different kinds of scientific investigations often involving the contributions of individuals from different disciplines
a theory is an explanation supported by many observations and or experiments that can be used to accurately explain related occurrences
predictions based upon research and observation
usually written in a IF.... THEN.. statement
hypotheses are widely used in science for determining data to collect and as a guide for interpreting the data
development of a research plan for testing a hypothesis requires planning
doing the actual experiment to test your hypothesis
variable that you can change
you should only have on
data that you collect, depends on the independent variable
recorded into a table and then put into a graph ex. plant growth
control and controlling
control - noun established reference point used as a standard of comparison
controlling - verb keeping everything else the same in the experiment so that there is only one independent variable
when should claims be questioned
claims should be questioned if the data based on the samples are very small, biased, or not controlled or if the conclusions are faulty incomplete or misleading numbers
are hypotheses valuable even if they are not proven correct
yes, because they lead to further investigation
what do scientists use to evaluate the results of investigations and explanation proposed by other scientists?
what are the steps to peer review
2. examine the evidence
3. identify faulty reasoning
4. point out statements that go beyond the evidence
4. suggest alternative explanations for the same observation