Projection that picks up impulses from other neurons
Nerve fiber projecting from the cell body that carries nerve impulses.
Connects cell body of a neuron to the axon.
Releases neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft
Fatty coat that insulates the axons of some nerve cells, speeding transmission of impulses.
Separation of circulating blood and the brain extracellular fluid in the CNS.
Receptor Binding - lock & key (NT to receptor, chemical)
Hormone or neurotransmitter affects target cells by binding to specific receptor molecules, which are often located in the cell membrane.
The nervous system's ability to change
Neurogenesis, Synaptogenesis, Pruning
Creation of new neurons in the adult brain; creation of new synapsi; killing off of unnecessary neurons.
Action Potential - all stages (resting potential, depolarization, hyperpolarization, threshold, refractoryperiod, how sodium and potassium are involved)
Resting: no activity; depolarization: change in cell membrane's potential; hyperpolarization: makes cell membrane more negative; threshold: when the electrical charge inside the neuron reaches a high enough level relative to the outside.
Synapse and Synaptic Cleft
Terminal point of axon branch which releases neurotransmitters; a gap into which neurotransmitters are released from the axon terminal
Neurotransmitters - molecules / chemicals, endogenous (inside)
Endogenous chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse.
Main inhibitory neurotransmitter
Main excitatory transmitter
Mood and temperature regulation, aggression, sleep cycles
Motor function and reward
Brain arousal, mood, hunger, and sleep
Muscle contraction (PNS), cortical arousal (CNS)
Pain reduction, increase in appetite
Psychoactive Drugs - exogenous, how they mimic NTs
Foreign, therefore exogenous; mimics normal processes.
Activation of the receptor causes hyperpolarization and depresses action potential generation.
Excitatory: depolarizes membrane and promotes action potential generation.
Promotes action (muscles)
Opposes action (muscles)
Central Nervous System
CNS: composed of brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System
Nerves that extend outside of the CNS
The most highly developed area of the human brain
Plays important role in movement
Consists of the cerebellum, pons, and medulla
Language, memory, executive function: oversees other mental operations
Hearing, understanding language, autobiographical memory
Very rear of brain; vision center
Temperature, body position, and pain
Inability to form speach
Inability to form new memories after a traumatic event.
Controls all voluntary action
Motor control, coordination, language, and emotion
Movement & planned action
Sensory relay station
Breathing, heart rate
Communication center between the two brain hemispheres; triggers dreams
Regulates emotion and internal physical states.
Somatic Nervous System
Carries messages from CNS to muscles throughout body
Sympathetic nervous system
Active during arousal, especially a crises.
Active during rest and digestion.
Interconnected brain regions: thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus
Pseudoscience of bumps on head meaning traits. Gave rise to idea of brain specialization of processes.
Shows structure of brain and intercranial disease
Used to diagnose metabolic diseases and lesions on a finer scale