Psych Midterm Hard Terms

60 terms by Iyoten 

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Dendrites

Projection that picks up impulses from other neurons

Axon

Nerve fiber projecting from the cell body that carries nerve impulses.

Axon hillock

Connects cell body of a neuron to the axon.

Axon terminal

Releases neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft

Synaptic vesicles

Reuptakes neurotransmitters

Glial Cell

Glue

Myelin Sheath

Fatty coat that insulates the axons of some nerve cells, speeding transmission of impulses.

Blood-Brain Barrier

Separation of circulating blood and the brain extracellular fluid in the CNS.

Receptor Binding - lock & key (NT to receptor, chemical)

Hormone or neurotransmitter affects target cells by binding to specific receptor molecules, which are often located in the cell membrane.

Plasticity

The nervous system's ability to change

Neurogenesis, Synaptogenesis, Pruning

Creation of new neurons in the adult brain; creation of new synapsi; killing off of unnecessary neurons.

Action Potential - all stages (resting potential, depolarization, hyperpolarization, threshold, refractoryperiod, how sodium and potassium are involved)

Resting: no activity; depolarization: change in cell membrane's potential; hyperpolarization: makes cell membrane more negative; threshold: when the electrical charge inside the neuron reaches a high enough level relative to the outside.

Synapse and Synaptic Cleft

Terminal point of axon branch which releases neurotransmitters; a gap into which neurotransmitters are released from the axon terminal

Neurotransmitters - molecules / chemicals, endogenous (inside)

Endogenous chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse.

GABA

Main inhibitory neurotransmitter

Glutamate

Main excitatory transmitter

Serotonin

Mood and temperature regulation, aggression, sleep cycles

Dopamine

Motor function and reward

Norepinephrine

Brain arousal, mood, hunger, and sleep

Acetylcholine

Muscle contraction (PNS), cortical arousal (CNS)

Endorphins

Pain reduction

Anandamide

Pain reduction, increase in appetite

Psychoactive Drugs - exogenous, how they mimic NTs

Foreign, therefore exogenous; mimics normal processes.

Inhibitory

Activation of the receptor causes hyperpolarization and depresses action potential generation.

Excitatory

Excitatory: depolarizes membrane and promotes action potential generation.

Agonist

Promotes action (muscles)

Antagonist

Opposes action (muscles)

Central Nervous System

CNS: composed of brain and spinal cord.

Peripheral Nervous System

Nerves that extend outside of the CNS

Forebrain

The most highly developed area of the human brain

Midbrain

Plays important role in movement

Hindbrain

Consists of the cerebellum, pons, and medulla

Frontal lobe

Language, memory, executive function: oversees other mental operations

Parietal lobe

Spacial systems

Temporal lobe

Hearing, understanding language, autobiographical memory

Occipital lobe

Very rear of brain; vision center

Somatosensory Cortex

Temperature, body position, and pain

Broca's Aphasia

Inability to form speach

Wernike's Aphasia

Nonsensical speach

Anterograde Amnesia

Inability to form new memories after a traumatic event.

Cerebrum

Controls all voluntary action

Cerebellum

Motor control, coordination, language, and emotion

Basal Ganglia

Movement & planned action

Basal Forebrain

Selective attention

Thalamus

Sensory relay station

Cerebellum

Balance

Medulla

Breathing, heart rate

Pons

Communication center between the two brain hemispheres; triggers dreams

Autonomic

Regulates emotion and internal physical states.

Somatic Nervous System

Carries messages from CNS to muscles throughout body

Sympathetic nervous system

Active during arousal, especially a crises.

Parasympathetic Division

Active during rest and digestion.

Limbic System

Interconnected brain regions: thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus

Hypothalamus

Hunger

Amygdala

Fear

Cingulate Cortex

Emotion

Hippocampus

Memory

Phrenology

Pseudoscience of bumps on head meaning traits. Gave rise to idea of brain specialization of processes.

Structural neuroimaging

Shows structure of brain and intercranial disease

Functional neuroimaging

Used to diagnose metabolic diseases and lesions on a finer scale

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