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Marco Polo, explorer, writer

More people became interested in India, China, and the rest of Asia as the story of _____ spread and exotic goods from the East appeared in European markets. He was an _____ and _____.

Italian merchants

_____ could make a fortune buying goods from Arab traders in the Middle East and selling the goods to wealthy Europeans.

spices, perfumes, silk

Venice, Genoa, and Pisa were the centers for the growing East-West trade of _____, _____, and _____.

Renaissance

The _____ period of great intellectual and artistic creativity encouraged Europeans to pursue new ideas and paved the way for an age of exploration and discovery.

astrolabe, magnetic compass

Technological advances that helped to prepare the way for European voyages of exploration included more accurate land and sea maps, and the development and improvement of navigational instruments, including the _____ and _____.

mapmakers

Information from explorers assisted _____ in creating more accurate land and sea maps.

caravel, caravel

The _____ is a 3-masted ship. The _____ sailed faster than earlier ships and carried more cargo and food supplies.

Muslims

Many West Africans in Ghana became _____ as a result of their contacts with North African traders.

Mecca

The powerful African kingdom of Mali was ruled by Mansa Musa, who in 1324 made a grand pilgrimage to _____.

Timbuktu

The capital of Mali became an important center of Islamic art and learning.

Songhai, Songhai

In 1469, the _____ people who lived along the river rebelled against Mali rule under the leadership of Askiya Muhammad. The ______ kingdom became the largest in the history of West Africa. He brought this empire to the height of its power.

Songhai

The _____ were easily defeated by the Moroccans in the 1500s.

Portugal

In the 1400s, _____ was the leader in exploration.

astronomers, geographers, mathematicians

Prince Henry the Navigator brought _____, _____, and _____ to Portugal to share knowledge with the Portuguese sailors and shipbuilders.

Gold Coast, Portuguese

The _____ is along the West Coast of Africa. The _____ traded and bought gold, ivory, and slaves on the Gold Coast.

Bartholomeu Dias

______ was the first to sail around the tip of Africa.

Vasco da Gama

_____ led the Portuguese expedition to India in 1497.

Leif Ericsson

The Viking _____ landed in Newfoundland about AD 1000.

Columbus

_____ planned to reach Asia by sailing west.

Queen Isabella

_____ of Spain financed Columbus' 1492 voyage.

Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria

The names of Columbus' three ships were the _____, _____, and ______.

sighted land

Columbus was having trouble with his crew because provisions were running low and they had not _____.

West Indies

Columbus called the islands in the Caribbean the _____ because he thought he had reached the East Indies in the Pacific Ocean.

line of demarcation, Treaty of Tordesillas

The imaginary line down the middle of the Atlantic was established to keep peace between Spain and Portugal was called the _____. The _____ gave Spain the right to most of North and South America.

Ferdinand Magellan, three

_____'s crew was the first to circumnavigate the globe. It took almost ____ years for the first voyage around the world.

strait

Narrow stretch of water joining two larger bodies of water.

Spanish Conquistadors

_____ - Spanish explorers received grants from the Spanish rulers to explore and establish settlements.

(guns and cannons)

The Spanish arrived with strange weapons ________ ,which made the Spanish appear godlike to the Native Americans. They also had fearsome animals like horses and dogs.

Hernan Cortes

In 1519 ______ landed in Mexico near the Aztec Empire.

Cortez

In November 1519, _____ was welcomed in Tenochtitlan by the Aztec Emperor Montezuma, whom he then took prisoner.

De Soto

_____ traveled as far west as present-day Oklahoma.

encomienda

____ - the right to demand taxes or labor from Native Americans living on the land.

Mestizos

____ were people with Spanish and Indian parents.

Bartolome de las Casas

A Spanish priest named ______ condemned the cruel treatment of Native Americans.

Martin Luther

_____ 's protests started the Protestant Reformation. Luther also believed that faith rather than good works was the way to salvation.

John Calvin

_____ was a French priest who rejected the teachings of the Catholic church.

Pope

The English Parliament in 1534 denied the authority of the _____ and recognized the king as the head of the Church of England.

raw materials

Rival European nations wanted to acquire colonies in the Americas to provide valuable gold and silver to provide ____ for industries in Europe and to sell European products.

Tordesillas, mercantilism

England, France, and the Netherlands ignored the Treaty of ______. The promise of great wealth was strong. The economic theory of ______ - a nation's power was based on its wealth, increased rivalries between nations.

Northwest Passage

England, France, and the Netherlands were trying to find a _____.

settlement

Even though explorers failed to find a Northwest Passage to Asia, their efforts were not wasted. They added to Europe's knowledge of the Americas and prepared the way for______.

Quebec

Samuel de Champlain is the explorer that established the settlement at _____.

Hudson Bay

The French settled in Canada to obtain control of the _____.

Netherlands

Henry Hudson was from the _____.

1600s

The Dutch set up trading posts in the early ____ along the Hudson River.

New York

The center of the Dutch colony was New Amsterdam, present day _____.

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