groups of cells that carry out a specific function.
several types of tissues that interact to perform a specific function.
a group of organs that work together to perform a set of related tasks.
a collection of genetically identical cells that live together in a closely connected group.
premise that all living things are composed of one or more cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism, and cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells.
the smallest unit of matter that can carry on all of the processes of life.
a cell component that performs specific functions for the cell.
a thin membrane.
the large organelle near the center of the cell.
organisms whose cells contain a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles.
unicellular organisms that lack a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles.
the ease with which substances pass into and out of the cell is determined by the cell membrane because it is this.
located on the interior and exterior; these bond to membrane lipids or other proteins embedded in the lipid bilayer.
embedded in the lipid bilayer, they may be on the interior or exterior. They often have carbohydrates attached to them that hold adjoining cells together or they act as sites where viruses or chemical messengers such as hormones can attach. They form channels/ pores for substances to pass through.
Fluid mosaic model:
describes the lipid bilayer as behaving more like a fluid than a solid. The membrane's lipids and proteins can move laterally within the lipid bilayer, and as a result, the pattern of lipids and proteins in the cell membrane is constantly changing.
pattern of lipids and proteins in the cell membrane that is constantly changing, because of lateral movement.
contains the various organelles of the cell.
a gelatin-like aqueous fluid that organelles are bathed in.
relatively large organelles that are the sites of chemical reactions that transfer energy from organic compounds to ATP.
the molecule that most cells use as their main energy currency.
the most numerous organelles in cells, these are not surrounded by a membrane. Each has an assemblage of two organic compounds; protein and RNA.
prepares proteins for export.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum:
ER that is covered with ribosomes and is prominent in cells or inserted into the cell membrane.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum:
ER without ribosomes and that is involved in the synthesis of steroids in gland cells, the regulation of calcium levels in muscle cells, and the breakdown of toxic substances by liver cells.
the processing, packaging, and secreting organelle of the cell. A system of membranes that appears as a series of flattened sacs with a characteristic convex shape in the cytosol. It modifies proteins for export by the cell.
small, spherical organelles that enclose hydrolytic enzymes within single membranes.
a network of long protein strands located in the cytosol. These are not surrounded by membranes. They provide support and participate in the movement of organelles within the cytosol.
support, movement, division. part of the cytoskeleton. A thread made of protein that consists of many actin molecules that are linked together to form a polymer chain. Smallest strands to make up the cytoskeleton; they help with cell movement and help contract muscle cells.
support, movement, division. hollow tubes that are the largest strands of the cytoskeleton. They extend outward from a center point near the nucleus to various sites near the cell membrane. When a cell is about to divide, bundles of these come together and extend across the cell.
bundles that come together and extend across the cell, they assist in the movement of chromosomes during cell division.
a hair like organelle that extends from the surface of the cell, where it assists movement. Found in eukaryote cells, these cover the exterior of many organisms.
a longer and less numerous hair like organelle that extends from the surface of the cell, where it assists movement. Found in eukaryote cells, it whips back and forth to propel unicellular organisms or specialized cells in multicellular organisms.
a protein skeleton that helps the nucleus maintain its shape.
a double membrane that surrounds the nucleus.
a combination of DNA and protein found in the nuclear envelope.
formed when chromatin strands coil up and becomes densely packed.
small holes in the nuclear envelope that RNA travels through.
a spherical area that is the site where ribosomes are synthesized and partially assembled before they pass through the nuclear pores to the cytosol.
lies outside the cell membrane in plants, it helps support and protect the plant. It contains long chains of cellulose. Pores in the wall allow ions and molecules to enter and exit the cell.
large, fluid filled organelles that store enzymes and metabolic wastes.
organelles that are surrounded by two membranes and contain DNA. Some store starch or fats, while others contain pigments.
enclose thylakoids; they are the organelles in which the energy of sunlight is converted into chemical energy in organic compounds during photosynthesis. They contain large amounts of green pigment.
membrane bound organelles found in chloroplasts.