Chapter 22: The Respiratory System

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Pearson Human Anatomy & Physiology, Marieb/Hoehn

Air moves into the lungs because

- the thorax is muscular.
- contraction of the diaphragm decreases the volume of the pleural cavity.
- the gas pressure in the lungs becomes less than outside pressure as the diaphragm contracts.
- the internal intercostals muscles decrease the thoracic cavity volume.
- the volume of the lungs decreases with inspiration.

- the gas pressure in the lungs becomes less than outside pressure as the diaphragm contracts.

Alveolar ventilation rate is

- the utilization of oxygen by alveolar cells to support metabolism.
- movement of dissolved gases from the blood to the alveoli.
- less than pulmonary ventilation due to dead space.
- the movement of dissolved gases from the alveoli to the blood.
- the movement of air into and out of the alveoli during a particular time.

- the movement of air into and out of the alveoli during a particular time.

Hemoglobin has a tendency to release oxygen where

- pH is more acidic.
- partial pressures of carbon dioxide are lower.
- pH is more alkaline.
- temperature is lower.
- partial pressures of oxygen are higher.

- pH is more acidic.

In the alveoli, the partial pressure of oxygen is

- about 104 mmHg.
- the same as PO2 for venous blood.
- equal with that in the tissues.
- lower than the PO2 of venous blood.
- much higher than the PO2 for arterial blood.

- about 104 mmHg.

Most of the carbon dioxide transported by the blood is

- carried by white blood cells.
- dissolved in plasma.
- converted to bicarbonate ions and transported in plasma.
- bound to hemoglobin.
- bound to the same protein as carbon dioxide.

- converted to bicarbonate ions and transported in plasma.

The elastic cartilage that shields the opening to the larynx during swallowing is the

- epiglottis.
- cuneiform cartilage.
- corniculate cartilage.
- cricoid cartilage.
- thyroid cartilage.

- epiglottis.

The movement of air into and out of the lungs is called

- internal respiration.
- cellular respiration.
- external respiration.
- oxidative phosphorylation.
- pulmonary ventilation.

- pulmonary ventilation.

This tissue lines the trachea.

- Simple squamous epithelium
- Stratified squamous epithelium
- Areolar connective tissue
- Hyaline cartilage
- Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

- Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Which respiratory measurement is normally the greatest?

- Expiratory reserve volume
- Tidal volume
- Vital capacity
- Inspiratory capacity
- Residual volume

- Vital capacity

Which respiratory structure has the smallest diameter?

- Trachea
- Bronchi
- Bronchiole
- Pharynx
- Larynx

- Bronchiole

Involuntary hyperventilation during an anxiety attack may cause the person to become faint due to

- decreasing O2 levels in the blood causing cells to NOT have enough ATP.
- increased temperature due to increased intercostals muscle activity.
- effects of increased O2 levels in the blood and consequent constriction of cerebral blood vessels.
- Increasing CO2 levels due to increase in cellular respiration, reducing brain perfusion and causing ischemia
- lowering CO2 levels in the blood and consequent constriction of cerebral blood vessels.

- lowering CO2 levels in the blood and consequent constriction of cerebral blood vessels.

Which of the following gases has no effect in the blood until hyperbaric conditions occur (as in SCUBA diving when one stays down too long at great depths), then a condition called ""rapture of the deep"" occurs, producing a narcotic-like effect as this gas interacts with other blood chemicals?

- Nitrogen
- Carbon dioxide
- Oxygen
- Carbon monoxide
- Helium

- Nitrogen

Which of the following terms describes the increase in depth and force of breathing that occurs during vigorous exercise?

- Hyperpnea
- Hypercapnia
- Hyperventilation
- Anoxia
- Hypoxia

- Hyperpnea

About 20% of carbon dioxide is transported in the blood as

- hydrogen ions.
- bicarbonate ions.
- dissolved gas in the plasma.
- oxyhemoglobin.
- carbaminohemoglobin.

- carbaminohemoglobin.

Which of the following controls the respiratory rate?

- Alveolar sacs
- Spinal cord
- Pons
- Medulla
- Cerebral cortex

- Medulla

Which of the following is NOT a direct function of the respiratory system?

- Inspiration
- External respiration
- Internal respiration
- Contraction of the diaphragm
- Expiration

- Internal respiration

Which of the following is NOT a function of the conducting zone?

- Cleansing of air
- Warming of air
- Gas exchange
- Mucous secretion
- Transport of air

- Gas exchange

Which of the following functions is not performed by the respiratory system?

- internal respiration
- pulmonary ventilation
- breathing
- external respiration

- internal respiration

The philtrum of the nose is the part that is located

- inferior to the apex.
- between the eyebrows.
- superior to the alae.
- on the anterior margin.

- inferior to the apex.

The tubular tonsils arch over the opening to the

- nasopharynx.
- layryngopharynx
- pharyngotympanic tubes.
- oropharynx.

- pharyngotympanic tubes.

The ____________ cartilage is connected to the vocal cords.

- corniculate
- cricoid
- cuneiform
- thyroid

- corniculate

Which of the following statements about voice production is incorrect?

- Loudness of voice depends on the size of the vocal cords.
- Themore tense the vocal cords, the higher the pitch.
- The glottis is wide when deep tones are produced.
- The larynx enlarges in males during puberty.

- Loudness of voice depends on the size of the vocal cords.

Which of the following is not a function of the trachealis muscle?

- It allows the esophagus to expand anteriorly when food is swallowed.
- It helps expel mucus during coughing.
- It decreases the diameter during expiration to expel air with a greater force.
- It prevents the trachea from collapsing and keeps it patent despite the pressure changes that take place during breathing.

- It prevents the trachea from collapsing and keeps it patent despite the pressure changes that take place during breathing.

The smallest subdivision of the lung that is visible to the naked eye is the

- alveolus.
- lobule.
- bronchiole.
- lobe.

- lobule.

An example of an enzyme located in the lung capillary membrane that acts on material in the blood is

- angiotensin converting enzyme.
- prostoglandins.
- renin
- interferon.

- angiotensin converting enzyme.

______________ pressure keeps the air spaces in the lung opened.

- Intrapulmonary
- Intrapleural
- Atmospheric
- Transpulmonary

- Transpulmonary

Which of the following conditions would not cause atelectasis?

- after pneumonia
- smoking
- a chest wound that perforates the pleura and allows air into the pleural cavity
- plugging of bronchioli

- smoking

Airway resistance is insignificant in relationship to gas flow because

- the blood flow is very high in comparison to the viscosity of air.
- the gas flow stops in the medium-sized bronchioles and diffusion takes over; therefore, airway resistance is no longer an issue.
- in the respiratory system the airway resistance is not related to the diameter of the conducting tubes.
- as the airways get smaller they branch more which results in a huge total cross-sectional area.

- as the airways get smaller they branch more which results in a huge total cross-sectional area.

All of the following would diminish lung compliance except

- an increase in alveolar surface tension.
- chronic inflammation.
- increase in the production of surfactant.
- tuberculosis.

- increase in the production of surfactant.

The transpulmonary pressure is the difference between the ____________ and the __________ pressure.

- intrapulmonary; intrapleural
- atmospheric; intrapulmonary
- intrapleural; alveolar
- atmospheric; intrapleural

- intrapulmonary; intrapleural

Which of the following conditions would not decrease the total respiratory compliance?

- thorax deformities
- paralysis of the intercostal muscles
- increase in lung compliance
- calcification of the coastal cartilages

- increase in lung compliance

Which of the following non-respiratory movements would ventilate all of the alveoli?

- crying
- yawning
- hiccups
- sneezing

- yawning

All of the following would be caused by breathing excessively high concentrations of oxygen for a long period of time except

- coma.
- oxygen toxicity.
- production of huge amounts of free radicals.
- increased mental function.

- increased mental function.

Which of the following would not directly decrease the alveolar surface involved in gas exchange?

- smoking
- tumors of the lung
- inflammatory products
- emphysema

- smoking

_____ secreted by endothelium of blood vessel is a well known vasodilator.

- HCO3
- CO2
- NO
- CO

- NO

Which of the following non-respiratory movements is caused by irritation of the diaphragm?

- coughing
- hiccups
- laughing
- crying

- hiccups

The dorsal respiratory group

- is located dorsally at the root of cranial nerve IX.
- ends at the pons-medullary junction.
- extends from the brain stem.
- is a rhythm generating center.

- is located dorsally at the root of cranial nerve IX.

The pontine respiratory group is responsible for all of the following functions except

- regulating and modifying the activity of the medullary neurons.
- smoothing out the transition from inspiration to expiration.
- causing apneustic breathing if it is damaged.
- stimulating the contraction of the diaphragm.

- stimulating the contraction of the diaphragm.

Which of the following statements best describes the mechanism of normal breathing patterns?

- It is set by two sets of pacemakers that excite each other.
- It is set by a single pacemaker that stimulates inspiration.
- It is set by a single pacemaker that stimulates expiration.
- It is set by two sets of pacemakers that inhibit each other.

- It is set by two sets of pacemakers that inhibit each other.

Which of the following would not be found in a "blue bloater"?

- right-sided heart failure
- pulmonary hypertension
- cyanosis
- loss of weight

- loss of weight

"Lung volume reduction" surgery could be used to treat

- tuberculosis.
- pneumothorax.
- emphysema.
- asthma.

- emphysema.

Which of the following is not involved in respiration?


- External ventilation
- External respiration
- Internal respiration
- Pulmonary ventilation

- External ventilation

Which of the following are the hairs within the nasal cavity that filter coarse particles, such as pollen and dust, from inspired air?


- Microvilli
- Cilia
- Vibrissae
- Alveoli

- Vibrissae

____________ is the inflammation of the nasal mucosa accompanied by excessive mucus production, nasal congestion, and postnasal drip.


- Laryngitis
- The common cold
- Sinusitis
- Rhinitis

- Rhinitis

Which of the following lists the regions of the pharynx, from superior to inferior?


- Nasopharynx; Laryngopharynx; Oropharynx
- Oropharynx; Laryngopharynx; Nasopharynx
- Laryngopharynx; Oropharynx; Nasopharynx
- Nasopharynx; Oropharynx; Laryngopharynx

- Nasopharynx; Oropharynx; Laryngopharynx

The _________________ is covered by a mucosa containing taste buds, and keeps food out of the lower respiratory passages.


- epiglottis
- vestibular folds
- glottis
- uvula

- epiglottis

The _______ are the site of gas exchange within the lungs.


- bronchi
- hila
- alveoli
- respiratory bronchioles

- alveoli

The ___________ is the elastic connective tissue found within the lungs.


- stroma
- pulmonary plexus
- parietal pleura
- visceral pleura

- stroma

________, or lung collapse, is a homeostatic imbalance that occurs when a bronchiole becomes plugged.


- Hypoxia
- Pneumothorax
- Atelectasis
- Pleurisy

- Atelectasis

Which of the following occurs during infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS)?


- The pleurae produce an excessive amount of fluid, putting pressure on the baby's lungs, hindering breathing.
- The baby is unable to keep his or her alveoli inflated between breaths.
- The baby's cilia are damaged or destroyed, and only coughing can prevent mucus from accumulating in the lungs.
- Histamine and other inflammatory chemicals cause the baby's bronchioles to constrict.

- The baby is unable to keep his or her alveoli inflated between breaths.

Which form of hypoxia occurs when body cells are unable to use O2 even though adequate amounts are delivered? (This type of hypoxia is usually the consequence of metabolic poisons, such as cyanide.)


- Anemic hypoxia
- Hypoxemic hypoxia
- Ischemic (stagnant) hypoxia
- Histotoxic hypoxia

- Histotoxic hypoxia

Which form of CO2 transport accounts for the greatest amount of CO2 transported in blood?


- Dissolved in plasma
- As carbon monoxide in plasma
- As bicarbonate ions in plasma
- Chemically bound to hemoglobin

- As bicarbonate ions in plasma

The increase in ventilation in response to metabolic needs is called ___________.


- hyperpnea
- hypocapnia
- Hering-Breuer reflex
- hyperventilation

- hyperpnea

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