CHapter 2: Ancient Middle East and Egypt

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fertile crescent

a region of the middle east named for its rich soils and golden wheat fields , civilizations arose here

mesopotamia

the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers

sumer

An ancient region of southern Mesopotamia which rose around 3300 B.C. The first empire that ruled in Mesopotamia and is credited with inventing writing. World's first civilization

flood

the Mesopotamian poem, The Epic of Gilgamesh, describes a ______ that destroys the world

natural resources

sumerian cities had few ______ _______

12

within a few 100 years, sumer included __ seperate city-states

1

how many rulers were there in sumerian government?

hierarchy

system of ranking groups

peasent farmers

majority of sumerians were ___ ____ (lowest level)

slaves

sumerains owned _______

polytheistic

sumerians were ______, worshiped many gods

ziggurat

a large, stepped platform topped by a temple

afterlife

sumerians believed in the _______, life after death

cuneiform

Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets, sumerian invented the first known writing in 3200 B.C.

mesopotamia

in 2500 B.C. armies swept across ________

number system

sumerian scholars developed ______ ______

greeks romans

sumerian knowledge passed on to the ______ and ______

colonies

Phoenicians set up ___ around the Mediterranean to promote trade

Sargon

The world's first empire was set up by ________ (ruler of Akkad)

Zoroaster

A Persian religion developed by _______ focused on the battle between god and evil

Hammurabi

The ruler who wanted to make sure everyone in his kingdom knew the laws was ________

Babylon

The king Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt the great city of ______. (he built the hanging walls too)

civil

Hammurabi's code addressed both _____ and criminal law

iron

Hittites developed the technology to make _____

Persian

______ rulers encouraged religious unity across the empire

currency

Darius set up a ________

Phoenicians

_________ developed an alphabet and a trading network

Babylon

Hammurabi was the king of _________

Marduk

the patron god of Babylon that Hammurabi promoted

Asia Minor

Where did the Hittites come from?

weapons

The hittites made better ____

Tigris

Assyrians lived on the _______

Assyrians

most feared warriors in history

libraries

King Assurbanipal, found one of the first _________

Babylon

Nebuchadnezzar revives _______

Cyrus the Great

In 539 B.C., Babylon fell to the Persian armies of _____________

Cyrus

Who built the largest empire ever seen?

bureaucracy

Darius set up this, is a system of government through departments and subdivisions

satrapy

an individual province

barter economy

when ppl exchanged goods or services for another

money economy

goods and services are for through the exchange of a token

Ahura

Zoroaster thought that a singe wise god, ____, ruled the world

Phoenicians

the ____________ expanded trade and manufacturing; made glass and dye

alphabet

Phoenicians invented the _______

cataract

a waterfall

delta

a triangular area of marshland formed by deposits of silt at the mouths of rivers

dynasty

ruling family

vizier

chief minister; supervised the gov.

Nile

Egyptian civilizations developed on the _____

pyramids

______ provided everything a pharaoh needed in the afterlife

Egypt

during Egypt's Middle Kingdom, foreign invaders occupied ____

flax

a plant whose fibers were used for clothing

floods

yearly _____ brought benefits to the Nile

S N

two regions: upper egypt in __, lower egypt in __

Menes

the king of upper egypt

memphis

egypt's capitol

old kingdom

egypt became a centralized state during the _____ ______

Giza

pyramids were built in the Old Kingdom, built in ______

drainage

the large ______ project in the middle kingdom created vast new stretches of farmable land

nubia

a gold-rich land to the south

hyksos

_____ invaded egypt for 100 years

new kingdom

the ____ _________ brought communication to ppl in sw asia and africa

female

hatshepsut- egypts first ___ ruler; encouraged trade

expanded

Thutmose II, her stepson, ______ egypt's borders

Ramses II

became pharaoh of the New Kingdom

Hittities

_____ signed a peace treaty in the new kingdom

egypt

In 1100 bc, ____ power declined

Amon-Re

the chief god or sun god

Re

old kingdom ppl worshiped __

Amon-Re

middle kingdom ppl worshiped ______

underworld

Osiris ruled over the __________, he was the god of the nile

monotheistic

the pharaoh, Akhenaton, wanted to incorparate a ________ religion. Aton was the god

mummification

drying a dead body and wrapping it as a mummy

valley of the kings

in the new kingdom, many pharaohs were buried in the _________________

King Tut

Howard Carter found the 18 year old, _________

conquests

foreign ____________ brought riches to egypt

women

______ could inherit property

hieratic

_____ writing; a simpler form for everyday use... cursive

papyrus

paper-like writing material

rosetta stone

stone monument

magic

egyptian physicians believed in ______

hebrews

israelians are known as ____

monotheistic

israelians were ______; one god

Torah

most sacred text (Israel)

Moses

he renewed god's covenant with the israelians,the Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus

David

______ was the 2nd king of Israel

Solomon

David's son who was a great king. He built massive project in Israel including the Great Temple. His project cost the people a lot of money in taxes causing a division in Israel.

N S

solomon's building projects caused the kingdom to split into israel in the __ and Judah in the __

Assyrians

in 722 bc, the ______ conqured israel

babylon

in 589 bc, _____ captured Judah

Cyrus the Great

___________________ freed the israelities

patriarchal

relating to a society in which men hold the greatest legal and moral authority

babylon captivity

King Nebuchadnezzar forced many into exile and destroyed the temple

europe

jews moved to _____

prophets

______, Isaiah and Jeremiah, reminded jews of their duties

diaspora

the dispersion of the Jews outside Israel

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