argument ad hominem
in latin means "against the man"
in which a claim or argument is rejected on the basis of some irrelevant fact about the person presenting the claim
argument ad populum
latin: "to the people"
an appeal to numbers; to our desire to fit in with the majority
appeal to authority
argues a claim is true because a person judged to be an authority affirms the claim
appeal to ignorance
the arguer tries to use the lack of evidence as support for a positive claim about the truth of a conclusion
appeal to pity
an arguer tries to get people to accept a conclusion by making them feel sorry for someone
appeal to tradition
something is better or correct simply because it is older, traditional, or "always has been done"
"if it isn't broken don't fix it"
argument that appeals to the growing popularity of an idea as a reason for accepting it as true
begging the question
in which the premise includes the claim that the conclusion is true or (directly or indirectly) assumes that the conclusion is true
false dilemma/either/or fallacy
arguer sets up the situation so it looks like there are only two choices: are left with only one option
guilt by association
in which a person rejects a claim simply because people he/she dislikes accept it
making assumptions about a whole group on a sample that is inadequate; stereotyping
"it does not follow"
stating, as a conclusion, something that does not strictly follow from the premise
poisoning the well
trying to discredit what a person might later claim by presenting unfavorable information (be it true or untrue) about the person
attack is made prior to the person even making the claim or claims
"this word, ergo propter hoc"; translates as "after this, therefore because of this"
correlation wrongly being linked to causation
going off on a tangent, raising a side issue that distracts the audience from what's really at stake
claiming that a chain reaction will inevitably take place, in reality there is not enough evidence for that assumption
to anticipate and respond in advance to the arguments that an opponent might make; sets up a weak version of the opposition's stance and defeats it, but it's not all that impressive to knock down something that isn't very stable
includes "hook and lead"
appeals to logos
why we should care
plan of development
addresses the counter argument as to support claim and shoot down any opposition
agree there's a point
appeal to pathos and reminds the reader of the ethos established earlier
answers the question, "so what?"
assertion or conclusion which must be proven or supported
the evidence supporting the claim
basic principle or assumption that connects the claim and the data in an argument and reveals the arguer's own beliefs or values
a statement about how strong the claim is
an exception to your claim
defending the warrant with reasons
arguing to negotiate differences
done partially by restating opposing position fairly and accurately, without either praise or blame, as to be capable of expressing alternative views in full understanding
summary of opposing views
accurately and neutrally as possible, states the views of people with whom you disagree
statement of understanding
throwing the other guy a bone
recognizing legitimacy of claim
statement of contexts
describes situations in which you hope your views would be honored