Latin Roots 1-15

141 terms by xtimothy 

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abrupt

1. broken off; lacking in continuity; steep (ant. sloping)
2. sudden; quick and unexpected (ant. leisurely, deliberate, gradual)

corrupt (adj.)

changed ("broken to pieces") from good to bad; vicious

corrupt (v.)

change ("break into pieces") from good to bad; debase; pervert; falsify

disrupt

break apart; cause disorder

erupt

burst or break out

incorruptible

inflexibly honest; incapable of being corrupted or bribed

interrupt

break into or between; hinder; stop

rupture

1. break; breaking
2. hostility

bactericide

substance that kills bacteria

biocide

substance that destroys many different organisms

fratricide

act of killing (or killer of) one's brother

fungicide

substance that kills fungi or inhibits their growth

genocide

deliberate extermination of a racial or cultural group

germicide

substance that kills germs

herbicide

substance that kills plants

homicide

killing of one human by another

infanticide

act or killing (or killer of) an infant

insecticide

substance that kills insects

matricide

act of killing (or killer of) one's mother

patricide

act of killing (or killer of) one's father

pesticide

substance that kills rats, insects, bacteria, etc.

regicide

act of killing (or killer of) a king

sororicide

act of killing (or killer of) one's sister

suicide

act of killing (or killer of) one's self

tyrannicide

act of killing (or killer of) a tyrant

astringent (adj.)

1. drawing (the tissues) tightly together (e.g. to check bleeding)
2. stern; austere

astringent (n.)

substance that shrinks the tissues and checks flow of blood

boa constrictor

snake that "constricts" or crushes its prey in its coils

constrict

draw together; render narrower; shrink (ant. expand)

restrict

keep within limits (literally, "keep back"); confine

stricture

1. adverse criticism (literally, "tightening"); censure
2. restriction

stringent

strict (literally, "binding tight"); rigid; severe

unrestricted

1. not confined within bounds; free
2. open to all

carnivore

flesh-eating animal

carnivorous

flesh-eating

devour

1. eat greedily or ravenously
2. seize upon and destroy

frugivorous

feeding on fruit

herbivore

plant-eating animal

herbivorous

dependent on (literally, "eating") plants as food

insectivorous

dependent on (literally, "eating") insects as food

omnivore

person or animal that eats everything (both flesh and plants)

omnivorous

1. eating everything, bot plant and animal substances
2. avidly taking in everything

voracious

1. greedy in eating
2. insatiable

convivial

fond of eating and drinking with friends; sociable; jovial; hospitable

taciturn

inclined to silence

stolid

unemotional

revive

bring back to life; restore

survive

outlive; remain alive after

vivacious

lively in temper or conduct

vivacity

liveliness of spirit

vivid

1. (used with things) having the vigor and spirit of life
2. sharp and clear; graphic

vivify

enliven; make vivid

vivisection

operation on a living animal for scientific investigation

contortionist

a person who can twist his or her body into odd postures

distort

1. twist out of shape; contort
2. twist out of the true meaning; misrepresent; pervert; falsify

extort

wrest (money, promises, etc.) from a person by force (literally, "twist out")

retort (v.)

to reply quickly or sharply

retort (n.)

quickly, witty, or cutting reply

torsion

act of twisting; stress due to twisting forces exerted on a body

tortuous

1. full of twists or curves; winding
2. tricky; crooked; circuitous

torture (v.)

1. wrench; twist
2. inflict severe pain upon

torture (n.)

anguish of body or mind; agony

convict (v.)

prove guilty; show conclusively to be guilty

convict (n.)

person serving a prison sentence

conviction

1. state of being judged guilty of an offense
2. strong belief

convince

persuade or show conclusively by argument or proof

evict

1. expel out of legal process;
2. oust

evince

show clearly; disclose; reveal

invincible

incapable of being conquered

vanquish

overcome in battle; conquer; defeat

victor

winner; conqueror

fraction

one or more of the equal parts of a whole; fragment

fractious

apt to break out into a passion; cross; irritable (ant. peaceable)

fracture

1. break or crack
2. breaking of a bone

fragile

easily broken; frail; delicate (ant. tough; durable)

fragment

a part broken off

infraction

act of breaking; a breach; a violation;

refract

bend (literally, "break back") from a straight path

refractory

resisting; intractable; hard to manage (ant. malleable; tractable; adaptable)

omnibus

covering many things at once

omnibus

1. bus
2. book containing a variety of works by one author

omnifarious

of all varieties, forms, or kinds

omnific

all-creating

omnipotent

unlimited in power; almighty

omnipresent

present everywhere at the same time; ubiquitous

omniscient

all-knowing

deflect

turn ("bend") aside

flex

to bend

flexible

pliable ("capable of being bent"); not rigid; tractable (ant. inflexible)

flexor

muscle that serves to bend a limb

genuflect

to bend the knee; to touch the right knee to the ground, as in worship

inflection

change ("bend") in the pitch or tone of a person's voice

inflexibility

rigidity; firmness

reflect

1. throw ("bend") back light rays, as from a mirror (but /not/ from a prism, which /refracts/ rays)
2. to think

reflex

involuntary response to a stimulus; for example, sneezing

detention

act of keeping back or detaining

impertinent

1. irrelevant; not pertinent; inappropriate
2. rude

pertinacious

adhering ("holding") firmly to a purpose or opinion; very persistent

pertinent

having to do with the matter at hand; relevant

retentive

tenacious; able to retain or remember

retinue

group of followers or assistants attending a distinguished person

tenacity

firmness in holding fast; persistence

tenancy

period of a tenant's temporary holding of a real estate

tenet

principle, belief, or doctrine generally held to be true

tenure

1. period for which an office or position is held (ex. U.S. Supreme Court Justices are Justices for life)
2. status assuring an employee a permanent position

untenable

incapable of being held or defended

admonish

warn of a fault; reprove; rebuke (ant. commend)

admonition

gentle reproof ("warning"); counseling against a fault or error

admonitory

conveying of a gentle reproof

monitor (n.)

person or device that keeps track of, checks, or warns

monitor (v.)

to keep track of, regulate, or control the operation of a machine or process

monument

means of reminding us of a person or event (e.g. a statue or a tomb)

premonition

forewarning; intuitive anticipation of a coming event

premonitory

conveying a forewarning

countermand

to issue a contrary order

mandate

1. authoritative command
2. territory administered by a trustee (supervisory nation)

mandatory

obligatory; required by command (ant. optional)

remand

to send ("order") back; recommit, as to prison

writ of mandamus

written order form from a court to enforce the performance of some public duty

accredited

officially authorized or recognized; provided with credentials

credence

belief as to the truth of something

credentials

documents, letters, references, etc., that inspire belief or trust

credible

believable

credit

belief; faith; trust

credulous

too ready to believe; easily deceived (ant. skeptical)

creed

summary of principles believed in or adhered to

discredit (v.)

1. to cast doubt on; refuse to believe
2. to take trust or credit away from; disgrace

discredit (n.)

loss of belief or trust; damage to one's reputation; disgrace

incredible

not believable

incredulity

disbelief

affidavit

sworn written statement made before an authorized official

bona fide

made or carried out in good faith; genuine

confidant

one to whom secrets are entrusted

confident

having faith in oneself; self-reliant; sure (ant. apprehensive)

confidential

communicated in trust; secret; private

diffident

lacking self-confidence; unduly timid; shy

fidelity

1. faithfulness to a trust or vow (ant. perfidy)
2. accuracy; faithfulness of a sound reproduction

fiduciary

1. held in trust (such as property)
2. confidential (such as duties of a trustee)

infidel

one who does not accept a particular faith; unbeliever

perfidious

false to a trust; faithfulness; treacherous

perfidy

violation of a trust; treachery; faithfulness; disloyalty (ant. fealty)

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