Aims of argument
Inquire, convince, persuade, mediate
The art of mature reasoning
Brief references to things outside the text
(appealing for action)
The misuse of an otherwise comon and legitimate form of appeal. Logical fallacy literally means wrong thinking.
The character of the writer as we perceive him or her
Our emotions and attitudes as the argument arouses them
How well something is said
Our capacity for logic
Conclusion based on one's personal observations and experience
Conclusion based on a syllogism.All parts of the syllogism have to be true and valid for the syllogism and the conclusion to be valid
A three-part deductive argument in which a conclusion is based on a major premise and a minor premise ("All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal.")
An if/then syllogism. If this condition exists, then that result will follow.
(personal attack) Mud slinging in political campaigns, focuses more on the faults of one's opponent than on the issue at hand.
(common opinion) Everybodie's doing it fallacy. Teenagers use it to justify requests, peer pressure situations, advertising.
(this is how we've always done it) Passed down through generations, justify religious practices, educational practices, royalty lineage, political practices. (Just because this is how it's always been doesn't make it right)
(appealing to fear or pity through word choice) Overly dramatic word choice to get an audience to have a "knee-jerk" reaction, emotionally-laden word choice, strong connotations.
(post hoc, ergo proctor hoc-the first event caused the second) Misleads by confusing sequence with cause. Two usually unrelated situations where the first could not cause the second.
(present a valid counter position as equicalent to a fallacious position) EX. asking our citizens to recycle is another example of environmental extremism.
(skips the logical steps in a causal chain) EX. I ate at McDonalds today; therefore I will have a heart attack.
Stereotyping, racist, or sexist viewpoints. Misuse of inductive reasoning. EX. Most older people I know are hard of hearing; therefore, all older people I know are hard of hearing.
Begging the question
(aka circular reasoning) Just keeps repeating the same point over and over instead of coming up with real evidence/support. EX. A low fat diet is healthy because it's good for you. (healthy and good for you mean the same thing, there's no actual evidence there)
1st Aim of Argument
2nd Aim of Argument
3rd Aim of Argument
4th Aim of Argument
1. Who is your target audience?
2. What preconceptions and biases might they hold about your topic?
3. What claim do you want your readers to accept?
4. What reasons are likely to appeal to this audience?
(vocabulary, style, means of support, level of education, area of specialization)
tension, uneasiness, conflict exists. this is desirable when choosing a topic for argument
short summary of an arguments centeral point (the arguments thesis)
Should be flexible
can be stated or implied
can appear anywhere
Reasons to state claim toward the end of the argument
claim alienates audience
attempts to prove to your audience that a given condition exists
attempts to argue that one condition has caused or will cause another
where writer makes a judgment on an object
attempts to argue that certain actions should be taken
attempts to interpret the meaning behind certain trends or observed phenomena
the use of images, sometimes coupled iwth sound or appeals to the other senses
analyze and evaluate these texts, involves special skills and habits that are not essential when you read a book for information or entertainment
words or phrases to indicate that it may not hold true in every situation or set of circumstances
a written estimate of the merits of a performance
the act of passing off the ideas or writing of another as one's own
Definition of Inquiry
joining a conversation, an ongoing exchange of opinions about some controversial topic
a greek word that means putting together
develops your opinion about a controversial issue or question
the kind of style typical of argument, not as passionate and formal as oratory, nor as chatty and familiar as texting a friend. We use this when we talk or write to people we do not know very well whose opinion of us matters.
finding common ground and agreement on a course of action when parties to a dispute are in sharp and seemingly irreconcilable conflict
this must be in entirely in your own words, not a mixture of your words and the words of the source.
Citing your source
put quotation marks around sentences, parts of a sentence, and even significant words taken directly from another text
facts that are widely known and about which there is no controversy
Relationship between ethos/credibility and plagiarism
By citing your sources, you earn your reader's respect. If you do not cite your sources, many universities will indicate on a student's transcript if there has been an honor violation, something that potential employers will see. Plagiarism is theft, a breach of ethics, and amounts to taking an unearned and unfair advantage.
Examples of plagiarism
Copying and pasting from the Internet without attribution, Buying, stealing, or ghostwriting a paper, using ideas or quotations from a source without citation, araphrasing an author too lightly.
Consequences of plagiarism
You learn nothing about writing, so are cheating yourself, the paper will not be in your writing style, the papers are poorly written; therefore, your grade suffers. You can be expelled from a class or school, fail your class, and damage your credibility.
the effort to explain or justify one's actions in the face of disapproval
Goal of mediation
aims to move disputants beyond the polarized thinking that makes conflicts impossible to resolve. or..helps both sides see the other sides point.
mediators best asset
Acceptable styles of documentation
MLA (Modern Language Association) and APA (American Psychological Association)
Visual supplements to a text.
the shared identity of a group of people, especially because of a common language and culture
A statement that has the doer of the action as the subject of the sentence, followed by the verb and the person or thing that receives the action.
Principles or values an argument takes for granted and so does not sate or defend.