a word is cognate with another if both derive from the same word in an ancestral language
an individual sound that is a basic structural element of language
variant production of a phoneme. ex. /p/ in pot vs spot, pot is aspirated
simplifications of adult-like productions of words. Some of the more common processes are weak syllable deletion, final consonant deletion, and velar fronting (substitution of a /t/ or /d/ for a /k/ or /g/), reduplication, consonant cluster reduction, assimilation, stopping
final consonant deletion
The final consonant in the word is omitted - ex. home --> hoe, cat-ca; carrot-cara; CVCV-CVCV
Weak syllable deletion
take out weak syllable that is before or after stressed syllable; tɛlɛfoʊ͡n to tɛlfoʊ͡n; vacation-cation
ake out weak syllable that is before or after stressed syllable; tɛlɛfoʊ͡n to tɛlfoʊ͡n; mommy-mama
consonant cluster reduction
phonological process seen in preschool children in which one or more consonants are deleted from a cluster of 2 or more in order to simplify production; CCV+->CV; ex: Tree-te, stay-tay
one consonant becomes like another, although the vowel is usually not affected; doggie-goggie
substitution of a stop for a fricative or affricate; face-pace; this-dis
eplacement of a palatal or velar (obstruent only) consonant with a more anterior one. go-do; ring-rin
VL, Bilabial, Stop
V, Bilabial, stop
VL, labiodental, fricative
V, labiodental, fricative
vl, interdental, fricative
VL, alveolar, fricative
v, alveolar, fricative
vl, palatal, fricative
meaSure; v, palatal, fricative
vl, glottal, fricative
name the one glottal fricative
name the only glottal sound
v, alveolar, stops
vl, velar, stop
vl, palatal, affricates
/dz/ or "j"ump
v, palatal, affricate
only palatal affricate
/dz/ or "j"ump
v, bilabial, glide
v, alveolar, liquid
v, palatal, glide
v, palatal, liquid
v, velar, nasal
sounds made with complete occlusion of airflow, which is then typically released; /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, and /g/
a consonant that is articulated using both lips
a consonant that is articulated using both lips
speech gestures in which the tongue protrudes between the teeth -- th
a consonant articulated with the tip of the tongue near the gum ridge
a consonant articulated with the tip of the tongue near the gum ridge
produced with the back of the tongue touching or near the soft palate (as 'k' in 'cat' and 'g' in 'gun' and 'ng' in 'sing')
point of articulation: produced as the airstream passes through the glottis and rubs the vocal bands, producing friction (h). constriction at vocal folds
ubset of obstruents, sounds made by various degrees of occlusion to airflow by constricting the articulatory space and creating turbulence in the airstream; /f/, /v/, /θ/, /ð/, /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, and /h/
brief stopping of air, release with friction church, watch: combination of d,z
Consonants produced by blocking the oral cavity and emitting the sound through the nasal cavity.
subset of sonorants, sounds made by the articulators moving quickly from one position to another to modify the airstream; /w/ and /j/
/l/ and /r/
A system of the component features of sounds that is used for describing the differences between phonemes in a language; +/- system
the branch of acoustics concerned with speech processes including its production and perception and acoustic analysis
the study of the sound system of a given language and the analysis and classification of its phonemes; segmental and suprasegmental
myelination, babbling, reduplicated babbling, echolalia, variegated babbling
begin around 4m; CV or VC constructions
gooing or cooing, produce back consonant sounds similar to /g/ and /k/ and middle and back vowel sounds like /uh/
infants vocalize in response to speech of others
infants can imitate tone and pitch signals of their caregivers
6-7m, babbled sequences in which the same syllable is repeated (e.g. bababa).
non repeating consonant-vowel combos (da ma goo ga)
toddler speech begins
phonological processes disappear by age p4
p, h, n, b, k
m, w, g, f, d
t, sh, 'y'
s, v, ng, r, l, ch, z, 'j'
consonant blends and clusters
children are motivated to develop language because it serves certain purposes or functions for them. The first four functions help the child to satisfy physical, emotional and social needs instrumental, regulatory, interactional, and personal functions.The next three functions are heuristic, imaginative, and representational, all helping the child to come to terms with his or her environment.
This is when the child uses language to express their needs (e.g.'Want juice')
This is the use of language to express feelings, opinions, and individual identity (e.g. 'Me good girl')
Here language is used to make contact with others and form relationships (e.g. 'Love you, mummy')
This is where language is used to tell others what to do (e.g. 'Go away')
This is when language is used to gain knowledge about the environment (e.g. 'What the tractor doing?')
Here language is used to tell stories and jokes, and to create an imaginary environment.
The use of language to convey facts and information.
Dore (1975) proposed that children's utterances were realizations
of one of nine primitive speech acts:labelling
branch of grammar devoted to the study of the structure or forms of words, primarily through the use of the morpheme construct.
syntax is a traditional term for the
study the rules governing the combination of words to form sentences.
Brown's Stage I
Between 15 and 30 months, children are expected to have MLUm's (mean length of utterance measured in morphemes) of about 1.75 morphemes. just after they have built up a 50 to 60 word vocabulary, children acquire the ability to produce the Stage I sentence types,
Brown stage II
28-36m; they learn to use "-ing" endings on verbs, "in", "on", and "-s" plurals.
Brown stage III
36-42m,2.75MLUm; 2.5-3.0MLUm range; irregular past tense(me fell down); possessive(doggy's bone); to be (are they there?)
Brown stage IV
40-46m;3.50MLUm; 3.0-3.7MLUm range; articles(a book); reg past tense (he laughed);
Brown stage V
42-52+m;4.00MLUm; 3.7-4.5MLUm range; third person irregular(she has he does); auxiliary 'to be'(are they swimming?); contraction 'to be' in sentence( she's ready); contraction of "to be" auxillary (they're coming)
Universal grammar is a theory in linguistics that suggests that there are properties that all possible natural human languages have
type0-unrestricted, formal grammar; type1-context sensitive grammars; type2-context free grammar; type3-regular grammar
A formal grammar defines (or generates) a formal language, which is a (usually infinite) set of finite-length sequences of symbols (i.e. strings) that may be constructed by applying production rules to another sequence of symbols which initially contains just the start symbol.
He was one of the founders of cognitive linguistics, and developed the theories of Case Grammar , and Frame Semantics
a system of linguistic analysis, focusing on the link between the valence, or number of subjects, objects, etc., of a verb and the grammatical context it requires.
theorist focused on the social world of people when explaining cognitive developmentrefers to Elementary Mental Functions -Attention;Sensation;Perception;Memory; refers to tools of intellectual adaptation - these allow children to use the basic mental functions more effectively/adaptively, and these are culturally determined (e.g. memory mnemonics, mind maps). know for social development theory.
social development theory
cognitive development which emphasized the importance of other people (more knowledge others) in our mental growth
Bloom and Lahey
philosophy which states that the child is an active participant in the language learning process. According to this theory, the three major components of language are Content, Form, and Use.
includes the knowledge and ideas children have about their world. -semantics
described in terms of phonology, morphology, and syntax (Bangs, 1982). Phonology includes features such as articulation, voice, rhythm, and stress. The morphologic features consist of the child's lexicon (vocabulary) and grammatical morphemes (inflections attached to words, i.e., boy - boys). Syntax is simply the way words are combined to make sentences.
Pragmatics;Use includes the reasons for speaking, ways to interact, and interpretations of what is heardComprised of several elements including communicative intent/functions, organization/cohesion among utterances, turntaking, topic maintenance, presupposition, identification and repair of communication breakdown, non-verbal signals, and appropriate code.
Used to document early language skills -- divide total morpheme by total utterances
mean length response; number of words/number of utterances; measures length of utterance; better measure if MLU is greater than 4.0
type token ratio
# of diff. words divided by total # words .5 is typical
ndw number of diff. words
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
Rules for how words can be sequenced into phrases and sentences (i.e., grammar) Word combinations allow expression of an infinite number of ideas (i.e., the generative component of language).
The limited set of meanings conveyed by children's early utterances; relations between concepts or meanings.
sounds or phonemes that are present in a language. rules for how phonemes are combined to make words. 40 - 46 phonemes are present in American English
Rules governing the use of language in context
Piget's cognitive prereq to language
The four stages are: sensorimotor - birth to 2 years; preoperational - 2 years to 7 years; concrete operational - 7 years to 11 years; and formal operational (abstract thinking) - 11 years and up. The mastery of symbols takes place in the preoperational stage. In the concrete stage, children learn mastery of classes, relations, and numbers and how to reason. The last stage deals with the mastery of thought (Evans, 1973).
age 0-2, reflex base; coordinate reflexes
2-7; self oriented, egocentric
7-12, more than one point of view, no abstract problems, consider some outcomes
12+; think abstractly, reason theoretically, not all ppl reach this stage
meaningless or irrelevant speech with typical intonational patterns.
acoustic measures of speech
temporal or frequency measures
acoustic correlate, usually measured in milliseconds, and perceived as length
most basic: fundamental frequency
rate of vocal fold vibration; measured in Hz and perceived as pitch
resonant frequencies of the vocal tract, freq values amplified due to the configuration of the VT are acoustic correlates that determine a vowel
Whole number multiples of a fundamental frequency
physiological measures of speech
respiration, articulation, and laryngeal activity
assessed through strain belts or electronic transducers placed on the chest.
muscle tension via electromyographic recordings through skin surface and within muscle;
EGG or electroglottography- small transducers are placed on either side of throat above larynx. the transducers register changes in electrical impedance that are thought to be directly correlated with systematic increases and decreases in vf contact; can also look at photographs, movies, x-rays with a cinematography or stroboscopy
cartilages of the larynx
arytenoid, thyroid, and the cricoid
inerarytenoid, lateral cricoidarytenoid muscle, posterior cricoarytenoid muscle, crocothyroid muscle, thyroidarytenoid muscle
ventilatory: inspiration followed by an expiration ; air particles will always move from high pressure to low pressure; when we inhale the air pressure in side the lungs (subglottal air press) is lower than that outside the lungs. VF must be open, incostal muscles work to raise rib cage; expiration: quiet breathing muscles inactive.
breathing for speech
90% exhalation, 10%inhalation;
breathing for speech process
inspiratory muscles, elastic recoil, expiratory muscles; inspiratory muscles are active to prevent quick collapse, elastic recoil allows air to be exhaled, muscles of expiration come into play as they squeeze out remaining air at a constant rate
Several types. One is Interjudge Reliability
agreement of two independent judges on the occurrence and type of responses performed by the client
he extent to which a test measures what it sets out to measure
numerical methods used to determine whether research data support a hypothesis or whether results were due to chance
statistical procedures used to describe characteristics and responses of groups of subjects
Evidence-based practice-entails making decisions about how to promote health or provide care by integrating the best available evidence with practitioner expertise and other resources, and with the characteristics, state, needs, values and preferences of those who will be affected. This is done in a manner that is compatible with the environmental and organizational context. Evidence is comprised of research findings derived from the systematic collection of data through observation and experiment and the formulation of questions and testing of hypotheses" (www.ebbp.org).
A procedure, based on sample evidence and probability theory, used to determine whether the hypothesis is a reasonable statement and should not be rejected or is unreasonable and should be rejected.
The percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specified time period.
The number of Americans with a hearing loss has evidentially __during the past 30 years. Data gleaned from Federal surveys illustrate the following trend of prevalence for individuals aged three years or older: 13.2 million (1971), 14.2 million (1977), 20.3 million (1991), and 24.2 million (1993) (1, 2). An independent researcher estimates that 28.6 million Americans had an auditory disorder in 2000 (3). This estimate is reasonably well within projections from the 1971-1993 trend line that evolved from Federal surveys (4).
Several studies indicate variance in the prevalence of newborns with congenital hearing loss in the United States. The overall estimates are between 1 to 6 per 1,000 newborns (7, 8). Most children with congenital hearing loss have hearing impairment at birth and are potentially identifiable by newborn and infant hearing screening. However, some congenital hearing loss may not become evident until___
later in childhood
congenital hearing loss means the hearing loss is present__. Congenital hearing loss can be caused by__ or__ factors.
at birth; genetic or nongenetic
Nongenetic factors can account for about__ of congenital hearing loss.
Nongenetic factors that are known to cause congenital hearing loss include:
Maternal infections, such as rubella (German measles), cytomegalovirus, or herpes simplex virus
Low birth weight
Toxins including drugs and alcohol consumed by the mother during pregnancy
Complications associated with the Rh factor in the blood/jaundice
Toxemia during pregnancy
Lack of oxygen (anoxia)
genetic syndromes that include hearing loss as one of the symptoms.
Treacher Collins syndrome
acquired HL examples
Ear infections (very common in children)
Medications that are toxic to the ear
the number of repetitions by time unit
recur in repeating sequences
the amount of time it takes one wavelength to pass a point
the distance (measured in the direction of propagation) between two points in the same phase in consecutive cycles of a wave
a graphical representation of a person's auditory sensitivity to sound
test of the vibrating function of tympanic membranes
the unit of frequency
unit of sound intensity
conductive hearing loss
hearing loss due to problems with the bones of the middle ear
sensory neural hearing loss
Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerve
mixed hearing loss
combination of sensorineural and conductive hearing loss
refers to how the central nervous system (CNS) uses auditory informationan auditory deficit that is not the result of other higher-order cognitive, language, or related disorder.
Children with APD
may have difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments, following directions, and discriminating (or telling the difference between) similar-sounding speech sounds. Sometimes they may behave as if a hearing loss is present, often asking for repetition or clarification
To diagnose APD,
the audiologist will administer a series of tests in a sound-treated room. These tests require listeners to attend to a variety of signals and to respond to them via repetition, pushing a button, or in some other way. Other tests that measure the auditory system's physiologic responses to sound may also be administered. Most of the tests of APD require that a child be at least 7 or 8 years of age because the variability in brain function is so marked in younger children that test interpretation may not be possible.
Treatment of APD generally focuses on three primary areas:
changing the learning or communication environment, recruiting higher-order skills to help compensate for the disorder, and remediation of the auditory deficit itself.
APD environmental modifications
use of electronic devices that assist listening, teacher-oriented suggestions to improve delivery of information, and other methods of altering the learning environment so that the child with APD can focus his or her attention on the message.
speech recognition threshold
softest intensity spondee words that an individual can repeat at least 50% of the time. SRT
pure tone average
(PTA) is the average of the thresholds at 500, 1,000 and 2,000 Hzaverage should approximate the speech reception threshold (SRT), within 5 dB, and the speech detection threshold (SDT), within 6-8 dB.
Mild hearing loss
(26-40 dB)may cause inattention, difficulty suppressing background noise, and increased listening efforts. Patients with this degree of loss may not hear soft speech. Children may be fatigued after listening for long periods.
Moderate hearing loss
(41-55 dB)ay affect language development, syntax and articulation, interaction with peers, and self-esteem. Patients with this degree of loss have trouble hearing some conversational speech.
Moderate-severe hearing loss
(56-70 dB)cause difficulty with speech and decreased speech intelligibility. Patients with this degree of loss do not hear most conversational-level speech.
Severe hearing loss
(71-90 dB)may affect voice quality.
Profound hearing loss
(>90 dB)(deafness), speech and language deteriorate.
rather than rehabilitation, is the term used to describe this tx because the pt is disabled from birth and therefore is learning, not relearning.
the process of restoring or bringing to a healthy, useful state
The strengthening of stimulus energy during transduction.
Behind the ear, in the ear, in the canal and completely in canal
Teaching peron to make best use of residual hearing. Helps person focus on the acousitc cues that distinguish sounds and words.
expressing ideas to others by using spoken words
sending and receiving wordless, visual messages
maintains people interpret the world in terms of its similarities and differences. He has also suggested that there are two primary modes of thought: the narrative mode and the paradigmatic mode.research on the development of children proposed three modes of representation: enactive representation (action-based), iconic representation (image-based), and symbolic representation (language-based). suggests that a learner (even of a very young age) is capable of learning any material so long as the instruction is organized appropriately
mind engages in sequential, action-oriented, detail-driven though
mind transcends particularities to achieve systematic, categorical cognition
one is using some known aspects of reality without using words or imagination. Therefore, it involves representing the past events through making motor responses. It involves manly in knowing how to do something; it involves series of actions that are right for achieving some result e.g. Driving a car, skiing, tying a knot.
internal imagery, were the knowledge is characterised by a set of images that stand for the concept. The iconic representation depends on visual or other sensory association and is principally defined by perceptual organisation and techniques for economically transforming perceptions into meaning for the individual.
based upon an abstract, discretionary and flexible thought. It allows one to deal with what might be and what might not, and is a major tool in reflective thinking. This mode is illustrative of a person's competence to consider propositions rather than objects, to give ideas a hierarchical structure and to consider alternative possibilities in a combinatorial fashion
A transposition or reversal of two phonemes in a word (e.g., basket bakset; spaghetti pasghetti)
Substitution of a voiced consonant for an unvoiced one (i.e., "gey" for "key").
process whereby two separate speech sounds merge to form a single new phoneme.in which /t/, /d/, /s/, /z/ merge with /j/ and become /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/
tongue extends between the teeth or gums.
substitution of a glide (/w/ or /j/) for liquid; common in preschool utterances
non-nasal sound becomes a nasal because of influence of another nasal in a word
source filter theory
voiced sounds produced by laryngeal vibration & buzz by VF's make speech recognizable. speech is a product of sending a source of sound through the vocal tract, which acts as a filter to shape the sound.
muscular membranes in the larynx that produce sound
fm system amplifies voicei
four types of assistive listening devices
ALDs: hardwire, induction loop, infrared, and frequency modulation (fm)
direct wiring from microphone to amplifier and receiver. mic is placed near the desired speaker of interest-wire routes direct audio input of HA or receiver box.
induction loop amplification- wiring looped around perimeter of room. mic near speaker, sound source sent via wired connection or FM to receiver that converts signal to electrical energy
microphone placed near speaker. acoustic signal is converted to electrical energy via infrared light
reciever is placed near listener, speaker wears mic and transmitting unit
TV assisstive listening
connected to audio input using direct wired, induction lop, or FM system to transmit
may req separate amplification that is connected between telephone and headset or entire telephone unit used, commonly t-coil
signal to noise ratio
Ratio of magnitude of the analytical signal to the magnitude of the background noise signal
behind the ear HA- worn over pinna and is typically coupled to tubing with an earmold that directs the amplified sound to tympanic membrane
In the ear HA
resides in concha portion of the pinna with receiver extending into ear canal. variations: full shell, low profile, and half shell
in the canal HA
only fills lower .25 of concha. smallest style of HA that can contain directional mic
Placed on the mastoid process of the pinna. It plugs into the audiometer and vibrates the entire skull. When you stimulate via bone conduction (though the motion of the ossicles) the cochlea, you create the same traveling wave as you do air conduction which vibrates the entire cochlea. The effect on hair cells is the same.
0-6/8 months - use vocalizations to express a state
- unintentional communication
-caregiver assigns intent
-child focuses on needs/wants
-protoimperative or protodeclaritive
-social vocalization has a different pitch, shape and contour
-vocalizations are both a tool for thought and a tool for communicating
-relates to objects and people
Begins with the first meaningful word
Gesture usage gradually tunes out
speakers' ability to continue conversation by contributing comments related to their partners' last utterance
Split half reliability -
correlates the first half of a study with the second half; so odd vs. even testing... ex. Peabody test
Test/retest reliability -
how repeatable is the instrument at taking measurement
Concurrent validity -
- think the ability of the SAT to predict success in college.... It possesses predictive validity
Content validity -
an example is a test, has a representative sample of questions on a subject matter
Construct validity -
can measure an abstract concept or construct