Understanding nutrition chapter 6

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Protein - amino acids

Proteins

contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Arranged into amino acids linked in a chain. source of energy. needed by tissue for repair and growth. made up of 20 amino acids.

Amino Acids

building blocks of protein. Each contains an amino group, an acid group, a hydrogen atom, and a distinctive side group, all attached to a central carbon atom. amino - containing nitrogen

Nonessential amino acid

amino acids that the body can make

Conditionally essential amino acid

an amino acid that is normally nonessential, but must be supplied by the diet in special circumstances when the need for it exceeds the body's ability to produce it.

Peptide bond

bond that connects the acid end of one amino acid with the amino end of another forming a link in a protein chain

Dipeptide

two amino acids formed together. di- two, peptide- amino acid

Tripeptide

three amino acids bonded together. tri-three

Polypeptide

many (10 or more) amino acids bonded together. poly-many

Hemoglobin

iron-containing protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body. hemo-blood, globin- globular protein

Denaturation

the change in a protein's shape and consequent loss of its function brought about by heat, agitation, acid, base, alcohol, heavy metals, or other agents.

Proenzyme

inactive enzyme

Pepsin

a gastric enzyme that hydrolyzes protein. Secreted inactively called pepsinogen. Activated by hydrochloric acid in the stomach

Peptidase

a digestive enzyme that hydrolyzes peptide bonds.

Proteomics

study of the bodys proteins

Transcription

process of DNA being made into mRNA

Translation

process of mRNA directing the sequence of amino acids and synthesis of proteins

Sickle cell anemia

a hereditary anemia characterized by crescent shaped red blood cells. Interferes with oxygen transport and blood flow.

Hemolytic anemia

red blood cells affected with sickle cell anemia burst

Gene expression

the process by which a cell converts the genetic code into RNA and protein

Epigenetics

switching genes on and off without changing the genetic sequence

Catabolic

breaking down reactions

Anabolic

building up reactions

Matrix

a surrounding substance within which something else originates or is contained

Collagen

a protein from which connective tissues such as scars, tendons, ligaments, and the foundations of bones and teeth are made.

Enzymes

proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process. Protein catalysts.

Fluid Balance

maintenance of the proper types and amounts of fluid in each compartment of the body fluids

Buffers

compounds that keeps a solutions acidity or alkalinity constant

Edema

swelling of the body tissue caused by excessive amounts of fluid in tissue. seen in protein deficiency

Acids

compounds that release hydrogen ions

Bases

compounds that accept hydrogen ions

Acidosis

abnormally high acidity (excess hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues

Alkalosis

abnormally high alkalinity (low hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues

Antigens

foreign substances that trigger the attack of antibodies in the immune response.

Antibodies

protein that is produced by lymphocytes and that attaches to a specific antigen to kill it

Immunity

the body's ability to defend itself against diseases

Protein turnover

the degration and synthesis of protein. when proteins break down they free amino acids.

Amino acid pool

the supply of amino acids derived from food proteins or body proteins that collect in cells and blood. Ready to incorporate with proteins for energy.

Nitrogen Balance

amount of N consumed compared to N out.

Positive Nitrogen

N in > (greater than) N out

Negative Nitrogen

N in < (less than) N out

Neurotransmitters

chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron's dendrites

Deamination

removal of the amino (NH2) group from a compound such as an amino acid

High quality proteins

dietary proteins containing all the essential amino acids in relatively the same amounts that human beings require. They may also contain nonessential amino acids.

Protein digestibility

a measure of the amount of amino acids absorbed from a given protein intake.

Limited amino acid

the amino acid is the acid in the smallest supply relative to amount needed by body for protein synthesis.

Reference Protein

a standard to measure the quality of other proteins

Complementary proteins

two or more dietary proteins whose amino acid assortments complement each other in such a way that the essential amino acids missing from one are supplied by the other

Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)

a deficiency of protein or energy or both.

Acute PEM

protein energy malnutrition caused by recent severe food restrictions. thin waist. acute= small

Chronic PEM

caused by long term food deprivation. short height for age

Marasmus

results from severe deprivation or impaired absorption of energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals. "dry"

Kwashiorkor

results either from inadequate protein intake or from infection. "wet"

Whey protein

a by-product of cheese production; falsely promoted as increasing muscle mass. Whey is the watery part of milk that separates from the curds.

Branched chain amino acid

essential amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Present in large amounts in skeletal muscle tissue.

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