The set of economic and political relationships that organize food production for commercial purposes. It includes activities ranging from seed production, to retailing, to consumption of agricultural products.
The art and science of producing food from the land and tending livestock for the purpose of human consumption.
An agricultural activity associated with the raising of domesticated animals, such as cattle, horses, sheep, and goats.
A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
agriculture Form of agriculture that uses mechanical goods such as machinery, tools, vehicles, and facilities to produce large amounts of agricultural goods-a process requiring very little human labor.
commercial agricultural economy
All agricultural activity generated for the purpose of selling, not necessarily for local consumption.
An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter.
The conscious manipulation of plant and animal species by humans in order to sustain themselves.
An agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area.
Places where livestock are concentrated in a very small area and raised on hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing; often referred to as factory farms.
Area located in the crescent-shaped zone near the south¬eastern Mediterranean coast (including Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey), which was once a lush environment and one of the first hearths of domesti- . cation and thus agricultural activity.
genetically modified foods
Foods that are mostly products of organisms that have had their genes altered in a laboratory for specific purposes, such as dis¬ease resistance, increased productivity, or nutritional value allowing growers greater control, predictability, and efficiency.
The development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe.
hunting and gathering
The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance.
The rapid economic changes that occurred in agriculture and manufacturing in England in the late 18th century and that rapidly spread to other parts of the developed world.
Any kind of agricultural activity that involves effective and efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yield.
intensive agriculture Type of agriculture that requires large levels of manual labor to be successful.
An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West.
In agriculture, the replacement of human labor with technology or machines.
An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados,
A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.
Chemicals used on plants that do not harm the plants, but kill pests and have negative repercussions on other species who ingest the chemicals.
planned agricultural economy
An agricultural economy found in communist nations in which the government controls both agricultural production and distribution.
A large, frequently foreign-owned piece of agricultural land devoted to the production of a single export crop.
Process that occurs when soils in arid areas are brought under cultivation through irrigation. In arid climates, water evaporates quickly off the ground surface, leaving salty residues that render the soil infertile.
The use of tropical forest clearings for crop production until their fertility is lost. Plots are then abandoned, and farmers move on to new sites.
System of cultivation that usually exists in tropical areas where vegetation is cut close to the ground and then ignited. The fire introduces nutrients into the soil, thereby making it productive for a rela¬tively short period of time.
Crops including items like peanuts and pineapples, which are produced, usually in developing countries, for export.
subsistence agricultural economy
Any farm economy in which most crops are grown for nearly exclusive family or local consumption.
Land that is prepared for agriculture by using the slash-and-burn method.
Loss of the top fertile layer of soil is lost through erosion. It is a tremendous problem in areas with fragile soils, steep slopes, or torrential sea¬sonal rains.
The movements of livestock according to seasonal patterns, generally lowland areas in the winter, and highland areas in the summer.
The process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land.
von Thunen model
An agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural activity in terms of rent. Activities that require intensive cultivation and can¬not be transported over great distances pay higher rent to be close to the mar¬ket. Conversely, activities that are more extensive, with goods that are easy to transport, are located farther from the market where rent is less.
a grass yielding grain for food.
Husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing.
A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans gram while moving over a field.
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
Grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season.
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Harvesting twice a year on the same field.
Seeds of cereal grass.
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
The outer covering of a seed.
intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
Wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah.
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing ani¬mals, as well as land used for grazing
prime agricultural land
The most productive farmland. Prime meridian The meridian, designated as 0° longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.
A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
A machine that cuts grain standing in the field.
System of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation.
A flooded field for growing rice .
Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds.
Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer.
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
Farming methods that present longterm productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides.
To beat out grain from stalks by trampling it.
Commercial gardening and fruit farming.
Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants.
Rice planted on dryland in a nursery, then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth.
To remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind.
Wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the summer.