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A-B Design

a two phase experimental design consisting of a pre-treatment baseline condition (A) followed by a treatment condition (B).

A-B-A Design

An experiment entailing one reversal

A-B-A-B Design

an experiment reintroducing the B condition enables the replication of treatment effects, which strengthens the demonstration of experimental control

abative effect

A decrease in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by the stimulus that is increased in reinforcing effectiveness by the same motivating operation

ABC recording

The preferred method to use for behavioral assessment to determine which behavior to target for change is:

Abolishing operation

A motivating operation that decreases the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event.

Accuracy

The extent to which observed values, the data produced by measuring an event, match the true state, or true values, of the event as it exists in nature

Adjunctive Behavior

behavior that occurs as a collateral effect of a schedule of periodic reinforcement for other behavior: time-filling or interim activities that are induced by schedules of reinforcement during times when reinforcement is unlikely to be derived-aka schedule-induced behavior

Affirmation of the Consequent

the predictive power of steady state responding enables the behavior analyst to employ a kind of inductive logic

Alternating Treatments Design

the rapid alternation of two or more distinct treatments while their effects on the target behavior are measured

Alternative schedule

provides positive reinforcement whenever the requirement of either a ratio schedule or interval schedule is met, regardless of which of the component schedule's requirement is met first.

anecdotal observation

a form of direct, continuous observation in which the observer records a descriptive, temporally sequenced account of all behavior(s) of interest and the antecedent conditions and consequences for those behaviors as those events occur in the client's natural environment

antecedent

An environmental condition or stimulus change existing or occurring prior to a behavior of interest.

antecedent intervention

A behavior change strategy that manipulates contingency-independent antecedent stimuli (motivating operation).

artifact

an outcome or result that appears to exist because of the way it is measured but in fact does not correspond to what actually occurred

Artifacts

Measurement ______________are data that given unwarranted or misleading picture of the behavior because of the way measurement was conducted.

Ascending Baseline

shows an increasing trend in the behavior overtime

Ascending baseline

a data path that shows and increasing trend in the response measure over time.

audience

Anyone who functions as a discriminative stimulus evoking verbal behavior.

autoclitic

an SD or an MO for additional speaker verbal behavior.

automatic punishment

Punishment that occurs independent of the social mediation by others (i.e., a response product serves as a punisher independent of the social environment).

Automatic reinforcement

reinforcement that occurs independent of the social mediation of others

automatic reinforcement

Reinforcement that occurs independent of the social mediation of others (e.g., scratching an insect bite relieves the itch).

automaticity of reinforcement

behavior is modified by its consequences irrespective of the person's awareness. Person doesn't have to know that a consequence has occurred.

aversive stimulus

an unpleasant or noxious stimulus

avoidance contingency

a response prevents or postpones the presentation of a stimulus.

Avoidance contingency

contingency in which a response prevents or postpones the presentation of a stimulus- compare with escape contingency

B-A-B design

begins with application of the independent variable: the treatment

backup reinforcer

Tangible objects, activities, or privileges that serve as reinforcers and that can be purchased with tokens.

Bar Graph

histogram, is a simple and versatile format for graphically summarizing behavioral data

Bar Graph

The participant either engages in a behavior or does not. Therefore your data collection is limited to yes or no,

Baseline

original date that serves against any observed changes in behavior when the independent variable is applied and is compared

Baseline Logic

entails three elements-prediction, verification, and replication

Baseline logic

a term sometimes used to refer to the experimental reasoning inherent in single subject experimental designs; entails three elements: prediction, verification, and replication.

Baseline

A condition of an experiment in which the independent variable is not present; data obtained during baseline are the basis for determining the effects of the independent variable; a control condition that does not necessarily mean the absence of instruction or treatment, only the absence of a specific independent variable of experimental interest.

behavior

the activity of living organisms, includes everything that people do.

behavior change tactic

a consistent method for changing behavior derived from one or more principles of behavior.

Behavior

changes that last over time appear in different settings, environments, and with different people. (hint:Characteristics of ABA) Generality

behavior checklist

a checklist that provides descriptions of specific skills and the conditions under which each skill should be observed

behavior trap

An interrelated community of contingencies of reinforcement that can be especially powerful, producing substantial and long-lasting behavior changes.

behavior-altering effect

An alteration in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by the stimulus that is altered in effectiveness by the same motivating operation.

behavioral contract

Another term for contingency contract.

behavioral contrast

The phenomenon in which a change in one component of a multiple schedule that increases or decreases the rate of responding on that component is accompanied by a change in the response rate in the opposite direction on the other, unaltered component of the schedule.

behavioral cusp

a behavior that has sudden and dramatic consequences that extend well beyond the idiosyncratic change itself because it exposes the person to new environments, reinforcers, contingencies, responses, and stimulus controls

behavioral momentum

A metaphor to describe a rate of responding and its resistance to change following an alteration in reinforcement conditions.

believability

The extent to which the researcher convinces herself and others that the data are trustworthy and deserve interpretation

bonus response cost

A procedure for implementing response cost in which the person is provided a reservoir of reinforcers that are removed in predetermined amounts contingent on the occurrence of the target behavior

calibration

Any procedure used to evaluate the accuracy of a measurement system and, when sources of error are found, to use that information to correct or improve the measuring system

celeration

the change (acceleration or deceleration) in rate of responding over time

celeration time period

a unit of time (e.g., per week, per month) in which celeration is plotted on a Standard Celeration Chart

celeration trend line

this is measured as a factor by which rate multiplies or divides across the celeration time periods

Changed schedule of reinforcement

schedule of reinforcement in which the response requirements of 2 or more basic schedules must be met in a specified sequence before reinforcement is delivered: discriminative stimulus is correlated with each component of the schedule

Changing Criterion Design

An experimental Design in which an initial baseline phase is followed by a series of treatment phases consisting of successive and gradually changing criteria for reinforcement or punishment. Experimental control is evidenced by the extent the level of responding changes to conform to each new criterion.

Cognitive variables

Can cognitive variables be identified as cause of a science? Why or why not?

Component Analysis

Experimental designs that combine multiple baseline, reversal, and/or alternating treatment tactics can also provide the basis for comparing the effects of two or more independent variables

Compound schedule of reinforcement

schedule of reinforcement consisting of 2 or more elements of continuous reinforcement, the 4 intermittent schedules of reinforcement of various rates of responding, and extinction

Concurrent schedule

schedule of reinforcement in which 2 or more contingencies of reinforcement operates independently and simultaneously for 2 or more behaviors

conditional probability

the likelihood that a target behavior will occur in a given circumstance

conditioned motivating operation

A motivating operation whose value-altering effect depends on a learning history.

conditioned negative reinforcer

previously neutral events that acquire their effects through pairing with an existing (unconditioned or conditioned) negative reinforcer.

conditioned negative reinforcer

previously neutral stimulus change that functions as a negative reinforcer b/c of prior pairing with one or more negative reinforcers- see negative reinforcer; compare with unconditioned negative reinforcer

conditioned punisher

A previously neutral stimulus change that functions as a punisher

conditioned punisher

A previously neutral stimulus change that functions as a punisher because of prior pairing with one or more other punishers.

conditioned punisher

Sometimes called secondary or learned punishers.

conditioned reflex

A learned stimulus-response functional relation

Conditioned reinforcer

stimulus change that functions as a reinforcer b/c of prior pairing with one or more other reinforcers - aka secondary or learned reinforcer

conditioned stimulus

Stimulus component of a conditioned reflex: a formerly neutral stimulus

confidentiality

Describes a situation of trust insofar as any information regarding a person receiving or having received services may not be discussed with or otherwise made available to another person or group, unless that person has provided explicit authorization for release of such information.

conflict of interest

A situation in which a person in a position of responsibility or trust has competing professional or personal interests that make it difficult to fulfill his or her duties impartially.

Confounding variable

A Student changing level of interest and background knowledge in algebra, during a study on the effects of response card quiz reviews on the next-day quiz performance is a potential_______________ _________________to the investigation and should be monitored.

Confounding variable

An uncontrolled factor known or suspected to exert influence on the dependent variable.

Confounding Variables

Uncontrolled variables known or suspected to exert an influence one dependent variable

Conjunctive schedule

reinforcement follows the completion of response requirements for both a ratio and interval schedule of reinforcement

consequence

A stimulus change that follows a behavior of interest.

contingency

Refers to dependent and/or temporal relations between operant behavior and its controlling variables.

contingency contract

A mutually agreed upon document between parties (e.g., parent and child) that specifies a contingent relationship between the completion of specified behavior(s) and access to specified reinforcer(s).

contingency reversal

exchanging the reinforcement contingencies for two topographically different responses

contingent

Describes reinforcement (or punishment) that is delivered only after the target behavior has occurred.

contingent attention, contingent escape, alone, and control

the four conditions typically tested in a functional analysis

contingent observation

A procedure for implementing time-out in which the person is repositioned within an existing setting such that observation of ongoing activities remains, but access to reinforcement is lost.

continuous measurement

Measurement conducted in a manner such that all instances of the response class(es) of interest are detected during the observation period

continuous reinforcement

schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement for each occurrence of the target behavior

contrived contingency

Any contingency of reinforcement (or punishment) designed and implemented by a behavior analyst or practitioner to achieve the acquisition, maintenance, and/or generalization of a targeted behavior change.

contrived mediating stimulus

Any stimulus made functional for the target behavior in the instructional setting that later prompts or aids the learner in performing the target behavior in a generalization setting.

convergent and divergent

The two types of multiple control.

convergent multiple control

Occurs when a single verbal response is a function of more than one variable and what is said has more than one antecedent source of control.

copying a text

An elementary verbal operant that is evoked by a nonvocal verbal discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity with the controlling response.

Correlation

can be used to predict the probability that one event will occur

count

a simple tally of the number of occurrences of a behavior

Cumulative Record

(Or graph) was developed by Skinner as the primary means of data collection in the experimental analysis

Cumulative Recorder

a devise that automatically draws cumulative records that show the rate of response in real time

Data

the results of measurements, usually in quantified form

Data Path

represents the level and trend of behavior between successive data points, and it is a primary focus of attention the interpretation and analysis of graphed data

Delayed Multiple Baseline Design

is an experimental tactic in which an initial baseline and intervention are begun, and subsequent baselines are added in a staggered or delayed fashion.

dependent group contingency

A contingency in which reinforcement for all members of a group is dependent on the behavior of one member of the group or the behavior of a select group of members within the larger group.

Dependent Variable

the points on a line graph that shows the level of some quantifiable dimension of the target behavior

Dependent Variable

the target behavior in applied behavior analysis experiment, or more precisely a measurable dimensional quantity of that behavior

Dependent variable

the variable in an experiment measured to determine if it changes as a result of manipulations of the independent variable; in applied behavior analysis, it represents some measure of a socially significant behavior.

deprivation

The state of an organism with respect to how much time has elapsed since it has consumed or contacted a particular type of reinforcer: also refers to a procedure for increasing the effectiveness of a reinforcer.

Descending Baseline

shows a decreasing trend in the behavior overtime

Descending baseline

a data path that shows a decreasing trend in the response measure over time.

descriptive functional behavior assessment

direct observation of problem behavior and the antecedent and consequent events under naturally occurring conditions

Functional definition of behavior

Designated responses as members of the targeted response class only by their common effect on the environment (function)

Determinism

the kind of information that should be gathered on the phenomena of interest

Positive Punishment

Devon is driving car, sees red light and hits the gas. His car is hit. Devin's fine, but new car dented. In future Devon will not "speed up" when there is a red light. (is this an example of: Positive R., Positive P., Negative R, Negative P.?)

Differential reinforcement of diminishing rates

schedule of reinforcement in which the reinforcement is provided at the end of a predetermined interval contingent on the number of responses emitted during the interval being fewer than a gradual decreasing criterion based on the individual's performance in previous intervals.

Differential reinforcement of high rates

schedule of reinforcement in which the reinforcement is provided at the end of a predetermined interval contingent on the number of responses emitted during the interval being greater than a gradually increasing criterion based on the individual's performance in precious intervals.

Differential reinforcement of low rates

schedule of reinforcement in which the reinforcement a) follows each occurrence of the target behavior that is separated from the previous response by a minimum interresponse time or b) is contingent on the number of responses within a period of time not exceeding a predetermined criterion

direct measurement

Occurs when the behavior that is measured is the same as the behavior that is the focus of the investigation

Direct observation

_____________ measurement facilitates data collection for IOA and treatment integrity

Direct Replication

An experiment in which the researcher attempts to duplicate exactly the conditions of an earlier experiment (Source: CHH, 2 Ed).

discontinuous measurement

measurement conducted in a manner such that some instances of the response class(es) of interest may not be detected

discrete trial

any operant whose response rate is controlled by a given opportunity to emit the response

discriminated avoidance

contingency in which responding in the presence of a signal prevents the onset of a stimulus from which escape is a reinforcer- see also discriminative stimulus, discriminated operant, free operant avoidance, and stimulus control.

discriminated avoidance

responding in the presence of a signal prevents the onset of a stimulus from which escape is a reinforcer.

discriminated operant

An operant that occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than under others.

discriminative stimulus

A stimulus in the presence of which responses of some type have been reinforced and in the absence of which the same type of responses have occurred and not been reinforced.

discriminative stimulus for punishment

a stimulus condition in the presence of which a response has a lower probability of occurrence than it does in its absence as a result of response-contingent punishment delivery in the presence of the stimulus.

discriminative stimulus related to punishment

A stimulus in the presence of which responses of some type have been reinforced and in the absence of which the same type of responses have occurred and not been reinforced.

divergent multiple control

Occurs when a single antecedent variable affects the strength of more than one responses.

Does not specify the behaviors required to achieve goal.

Improving academic grades is not a good behavior to target because?

Double Blind Control

an experimental technique in which biased expectations of experimenters are eliminated by keeping both participants and experimental assistants unaware of which participants have received which treatment

DRI/DRA reversal technique

occurrences of a specified behavior that is either incompatible with the target behavior or an alternative to the target behavior are immediately followed by the same consequence previously delivered as contingent reinforcement for the target behavior

DRO reversal technique

the control condition consists of delivering the event suspected of functioning as reinforcement following the emission of any behavior other than the target behavior

duration

a measure of the total extent of time in which a behavior occurs

the consistency of responding the rate of responding and performance during extinction.

Each basic schedule of reinforcement has unique response characteristics that determine what?

echoic

An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity with the response.

ecological assessment

an assessment protocol that acknowledges complex interrelationships between environment and behavior - a method for obtaining data across multiple settings and persons

Empiricism

the way questions about the workings of nature are most effectively examined

environment

The conglomerate of real circumstances in which the organism or referenced part of the organism exists; behavior cannot occur in the absence of environment.

escape contingency

a response terminates an ongoing stimulus.

escape contingency

contingency in which a response terminates (produces escape from) an ongoing stimulus-compare with avoidance contingency

establishing operation

A motivating operation that establishes (increases) the effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event as a reinforcer.

ethical codes of behavior

Statements that provide guidelines for members of professional associations when deciding a course of action or conducting professional duties; standards by which graduated sanctions (e.g., reprimand, censure, expulsion) can be imposed for deviating from the code.

ethics

Behaviors, practices, and decisions that address such basic and fundamental questions as: What is the right thing to do? What's worth doing? What does it mean to be a good behavior analytic practitioner?

event recording

measurement procedure for obtaining a tally or count of the number of times a behavior occurs

exact count-per-interval IOA

The percentage of total intervals in which two observers recorded the same count

exclusion time-out

A procedure for implementing time-out in which, contingent on the occurrence of a target behavior, the person is removed physically from the current environment for a specified period.

Experimental Control

a predictable change in behavior can be reliably and repeatedly produced by the systematic manipulation of some aspect of the subject's environment

Experimental Control

a predictable change in behavior can be reliably produced by the systematic manipulation of some aspect of the person's environment

Experimental control

Two meanings: (a) the outcome of an experiment that demonstrates convincingly a functional relations, meaning that experimental control is achieved when a predictable change in behavior (the dependent variable_ can be reliably produced by manipulating a specific aspect of the environment (the independent variable); and (b) the extent to which a researcher maintains precise control of the independent variable by presenting it, with drawing it, and/or varying its value, and also by eliminating or holding constant all confounding and extraneous variables.

Experimental design

_________________________refers to the arrangement of conditions in a study so that meaningful comparisons of the effects of the independent variable can be made.

Experimental Design

refers to the particular arrangement of conditions in a study so that meaningful comparisons of the effects for the presence, absence, or different values of the independent variable can be made

formal similarity

A situation that occurs when the controlling antecedent stimulus and the response or response product (a) share the same sense mode (e.g., both stimulus and response are visual, auditory, or tactile) and (b) physically resemble each other.

free operant

any operant behavior that results in minimal displacement of the participant in time and space

free operant

can be emitted at nearly any time; is discrete, it requires minimal time for completion, and it can produce a wide range of response rates

free-operant avoidance

avoidance behavior is "free to occur" at any time

free-operant avoidance

contingency in which responses at any time during an interval prior to the onset of an aversive stimulus delays the presentation of the aversive stimulus-compare with discriminated avoidance

frequency

a ratio of count per observation time

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