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Pulling away from a painful stimulus is an example of the ________ reflex.

a. cross-extensor
b. ankle-jerk
c. pupillary
d. withdrawal
e. knee-jerk

Withdrawal

Pulling away from a painful stimulus is an example of the Withdrawal reflex.

The brain and spinal cord comprise the

a. autonomic nervous system.
b. central nervous system.
c. afferent nervous system.
d. efferent nervous system.
e. peripheral nervous system.

central nervous system.

The brain and spinal cord comprise the central nervous system.

The primary connection between cerebral hemispheres is the

a. cerebellum.
b. midbrain.
c. postcentral gyrus.
d. corpus callosum.
e. precentral gyrus.

corpus callosum.

The primary connection between cerebral hemispheres is the corpus callosum

Masses of myelinated nerve fibers appear

a. yellow.
b. brown.
c. gray.
d. transparent.
e. white.

white

Masses of myelinated nerve fibers appear white

The white matter of the spinal cord contains

a. bundles of dendrites.
b. interneurons.
c. sensory and motor nuclei.
d. bundles of myelinated axons .
e. cell bodies.

bundles of myelinated axons

The white matter of the spinal cord contains bundles of myelinated axons

Sensory receptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called

a. baroreceptors.
b. thermoreceptors.
c. proprioceptors.
d. nociceptors.
e. chemoreceptors.

baroreceptors.

Sensory receptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called baroreceptors.

Sound waves are converted into mechanical movements by the

a. round window.
b. cochlea.
c. auditory ossicles.
d. oval window.
e. tympanic membrane.

tympanic membrane

Sound waves are converted into mechanical movements by thetympanic membrane

.................deafness results from conditions in the middle ear that block the normal transfer of vibrations from the tympanum to the oval window.

a. Cochlear
b. Tunnel
c. Conduction
d. Nerve
e. Corti

Conduction

Conduction deafness results from conditions in the middle ear that block the normal transfer of vibrations from the tympanum to the oval window

The fading of a smell some time after you enter a room is an example of experiencing

a. a change in temperature.
b. a change in concentration of the odor.
c. sensory adaptation.
d. damage to receptors.
e. all of the above

sensory adaptation.

The fading of a smell some time after you enter a room is an example of experiencing sensory adaptation.

Nearsightedness is more properly called

a. retinal detachment.
b. myopia.
c. diabetes mellitus.
d. hyperopia.
e. glaucoma.

Myopia
Nearsightedness is more properly called myopia.

A colorblind man marries a woman who is heterozygous for the trait. What proportion of their sons, if they have any, can be expected to be colorblind?

a. 50%
b. 25%
c. 12.25%
d. 100%
e. 0%

50%

A colorblind man marries a woman who is heterozygous for the trait. There is a 50 % chance their sons, if they have any, can be expected to be colorblind.

Which blood type is NOT possible if the mother is blood type AB and the father is type B?

a. A
b. B
c. O
d. AB

O

It is not possible for a child to have blood type O if the mother is AB and the father is B.

The gene that is NOT expressed in a heterozygous situation is called

a. recessive.
b. dominant.
c. incomplete.
d. phenotypic.

recessive.

The gene that is NOT expressed in a heterozygous situation is called recessive.

How many spermatozoa are produced during spermatogenesis?



a. one
b. two
c. four
d. six
e. eight

Four

Four spermatozoa are produced during spermatogenesis

When alleles are identical, they are said to be

a. dominant.
b. recessive.
c. homozygous.
d. heterozygous.

homozygous

When alleles are identical, they are said to be homozygous

Select the correct statement about testosterone control.

a. FSH stimulates testicular production of testosterone.
b. Testosterone exerts positive feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary.
c. The pineal gland is believed to be the gland that exerts the most influence in testosterone control.
d. GnRh from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary.

GnRh from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary.

In testosterone control GnRh from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary.

The hormones responsible for maintaining the uterine wall during the second and third trimesters are

a. placental estrogen and progesterone.
b. hCG and LH.
c. placental lactogens.
d. FSH and LH.
e. none of the above

placental estrogen and progesterone.


The hormones responsible for maintaining the uterine wall during the second and third trimesters are placental estrogen and progesterone.

Foramen ovale ________.

a. is a shallow depression in the interventricular septum
b. is a condition in which the heart valves do not completely close
c. is a connection between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta in the fetus
d. connects the two atria in the fetal heart

connects the two atria in the fetal heart

Foramen ovaleconnects the two atria in the fetal heart

The body's nonspecific defenses include

a. skin.
b. complement.
c. interferon.
d. inflammation.
e. all of the above

all of the above

The body's nonspecific defenses include skin, complement, interferon and inflammation.

Which of the following is the LAST step in inflammation?

a. T cells release interferon.
b. phagocytosis.
c. mast cells release histamine, serotonin, and heparin.
d. blood flow to an area increases.
e. red blood cells release pus-forming agents.

phagocytosis.

Phagocytosis is the LAST step in inflammation

Hypoventilation would cause

a. respiratory acidosis.
b. metabolic acidosis.
c. respiratory alkalosis.
d. metabolic alkalosis.
e. none of the above

respiratory acidosis.

Hypoventilation would cause respiratory acidosis.

The force that causes air to move into the lungs during inspiration is supplied by

a. atmospheric pressure.
b. scalene muscles.
c. the diaphragm.
d. external intercostal muscles.
e. the abdominal muscles.

atmospheric pressure

The force that causes air to move into the lungs during inspiration is supplied by atmospheric pressure

Which of the following does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is initiated?

a. anticipation of exercise
b. proprioceptors
c. simultaneous cortical motor activation of the skeletal muscles and respiratory center
d. decrease in lactic acid levels

decrease in lactic acid levels

decrease in lactic acid levels does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is initiated

The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because ________.

a. the basal metabolic rate is higher at high altitudes
b. the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes
c. the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is higher at higher altitudes
d. the temperature is lower at higher altitudes

the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes.

The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes

The enzyme carbonic anhydrase causes

a. carbon dioxide to react with bicarbonate ions.
b. water to react with hydrogen ions.
c. water to react with bicarbonate ions.
d. carbon dioxide to react with water.
e. none of the above

carbon dioxide to react with water

The enzyme carbonic anhydrase causes carbon dioxide to react with water

Which of the following is greater?

a. the partial pressure of oxygen in the arteries
b. the partial pressure of oxygen in the veins

the partial pressure of oxygen in the arteries

The partial pressure of oxygen is greater in the arteries than the veins

The tricuspid valve is closed ________.

a. by the movement of blood from atrium to ventricle
b. when the ventricle is in systole
c. while the atrium is contracting
d. while the ventricle is in diastole

when the ventricle is in systole

The tricuspid valve is closed when the ventricle is in systole

Cardiac muscle cells are like skeletal muscle cells in that they ________.

a. have gap junctions
b. have end walls
c. have intercalated disks
d. are striated

are striated

Cardiac muscle cells are like skeletal muscle cells in that they are striated

If we were able to artificially alter the membrane permeability of pacemaker cells in the SA node so that sodium influx is more rapid, ________.

a. heart rate would decrease, but blood pressure would rise due to the excess sodium present
b. potassium channels compensate and no change in heart rate would occur
c. tetanic contraction would occur due to the short absolute refractory period of cardiac muscle
d. threshold is reached more quickly and heart rate would increase

threshold is reached more quickly and heart rate would increase

If we were able to artificially alter the membrane permeability of pacemaker cells in the SA node so that sodium influx is more rapid, threshold is reached more quickly and heart rate would increase

The deflection waves in an ECG tracing include ________.
a. the P wave, which is present only in patients who have had a heart attack
b. the Q-T interval, which indicates the time of atrial contraction
c. the T wave, which indicates ventricular repolarization
d. the PQRS complex, which follows ventricular contraction

the T wave, which indicates ventricular repolarization
The deflection waves in an ECG tracing include the T wave, which indicates ventricular repolarization

If the connection between the SA node and AV node becomes blocked,
a. the ventricles will beat faster.
b. the ventricles will beat independently of the atria.
c. the stroke volume will increase.
d. tachycardia will occur.
e. the ventricular rate of contraction will not be affected.

the ventricles will beat independently of the atria.

If the connection between the SA node and AV node becomes blocked, the ventricles will beat independently of the atria.

Which of the following will cause a decrease in blood pressure?

a. increased levels of aldosterone
b. increased vasodilation
c. increased levels of angiotensin II
d. increased levels of ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
e. increased blood volume

increased vasodilation

Increased vasodilation will cause a decrease in blood pressure?

The placenta is composed of tissues from the

a. father.
b. mother and father.
c. mother.
d. embryo.
e. mother and embryo.

mother and embryo.

The placenta is composed of tissues from the
mother and embryo.

During the secretory phase of the uterine (menstrual) cycle,

a. the old functional layer is sloughed off.
b. a new functional layer is formed in the uterus.
c. the ovarian follicle is formed.
d. ovulation occurs.
e. secretory glands in the endometrium elarge and increase secretion.

secretory glands in the endometrium elarge and increase secretion

During the secretory phase of the uterine (menstrual) cycle, secretory glands in the endometrium elarge and increase secretion

When a protein or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell,

a. a second messenger appears in the cytoplasm.
b. the hormone is transported to the nucleus, where it alters the activity of the DNA.
c. the cell becomes inactive.
d. the plasma membrane becomes depolarized.
e. the hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm.

a second messenger appears in the cytoplasm

When a protein or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, a second messenger appears in the cytoplasm

Insulin directly causes

a. increased blood pressure.
b. increased blood glucose levels.
c. increased glycogen storage.
d. release of lipids by adipose tissue.
e. increased heart activity.

increased glycogen storage

Insulin directly causes increased glycogen storage

The major targets of growth hormone are ________.

a. the liver
b. bones and skeletal muscles
c. the blood vessels
d. the adrenal glands

bones and skeletal muscles

The major targets of growth hormone are bones and skeletal muscles

Target cells of the releasing and inhibiting hormones are located in the

a. suprarenal gland.
b. thymus gland.
c. posterior pituitary.
d. testes.
e. anterior pituitary.

anterior pituitary

Target cells of the releasing and inhibiting hormones are located in the anterior pituitary

Which of the following is a type of circulatory shock?

a. cardiogenic, which results from any defect in blood vessels
b. circulatory, where blood volume is normal and constant
c. vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone
d. hypovolemic, caused by increased blood volume

vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone

vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone is a type of circulatory shock

Which of the following is greater?

a. blood pressure when parasympathetic stimulation to the heart increases
b. blood pressure when sympathetic stimulation to the heart increases

blood pressure when sympathetic stimulation to the heart increases

Blood pressure is greater when sympathetic stimulation to the heart increases v's blood pressure when parasympathetic stimulation to the heart increases

Mechanisms that do not help regulate blood pressure include ________.

a. nervous control that operates via reflex arcs involving baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, and higher brain centers
b. the dural sinus reflex
c. chemical controls such as atrial natriuretic peptide
d. renal regulation via the renin-angiotensin system of vasoconstriction

the dural sinus reflex

Mechanisms that do not help regulate blood pressure include the dural sinus reflex

Factors that aid venous return include all except ________.

a. pressure changes in the thorax
b. venous valves
c. activity of skeletal muscles
d. urinary output

urinary output

Factors that aid venous return include all except urinary output

In active artificial immunity,

a. the body receives antibodies produced by another animal.
b. the body makes a memory of the attack.
c. the body receives antibodies produced by another person.
d. genes for antibodies are introduced into the body.

e. the immune system attacks normal body cells.

the body makes a memory of the attack

In active artificial immunity the body makes a memory of the attack

The system that recognizes foreign molecules and acts to immobilize, neutralize, or destroy them is the ________.

a. integumentary system
b. immune system
c. lymphatic system
d. renal system

immune system

The system that recognizes foreign molecules and acts to immobilize, neutralize, or destroy them is the immune system

B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by ________.

a. producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells
b. reducing its size
c. forming of a large number of cells that are unlike the original B cell
d. immediately producing antigen-specific antibodies

producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells

B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells

Steroid hormones

a. are lipids.
b. are structurally similar to cholesterol.
c. bind to cell surface receptors.
d. A and B only.
e. A, B and C.

are lipids and are structurally similar to cholesterol

Steroid hormones are lipids and are structurally similar to cholesterol

Dan has been lost in the desert for two days with very little water. As a result of this exposure, one would expect to observe

a. elevated ADH levels.
b. increased blood volume.
c. normal urine production.
d. decreased blood concentration.
e. cells enlarged with fluid.

elevated ADH levels.

Dan has been lost in the desert for two days with very little water. As a result of this exposure, one would expect to observe elevaed ADH levels

The maintenance of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result of ________.

a. the operation of the various buffer systems in the stomach
b. control of the acids produced in the stomach
c. the control of respiratory ventilation
d. the active secretion of OH- into the filtrate by the kidney tubule cells

the control of respiratory ventilation

The maintenance of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result of the control of respiratory ventilation

The hormone that causes the activation of osteoclasts is

a. parathyroid hormone.
b. thyroid hormone.
c. oxytocin.
d. calcitonin.
e. glucagon.

parathyroid hormone

The hormone that causes the activation of osteoclasts is parathyroid hormone

Increased levels of the hormone ________ will lead to increased levels of calcium ions in the blood.

a. cortisol
b. aldosterone
c. thymosin
d. parathyroid hormone
e. calcitonin

parathyroid hormone

Increased levels of the parathyroid hormone will lead to increased levels of calcium ions in the blood.

Neural reflexes
a. are automatic motor responses.
b. are triggered by specific stimuli.
c. show little variability in response.
d. help preserve homeostasis.
e. all of the above

all of the above

Neural reflexes are automatic motor responses, are triggered by specific stimuli, show little variability in response and help preserve homeostasis.

The ciliary muscle helps to
a. control the amount of light reaching the retina.
b. control the shape of the lens.
c. move the eyeball.
d. control the production of aqueous humor.

control the shape of the lens

The ciliary muscle helps to control the shape of the lens

Another name for antidiuretic hormone is
a. cortisol.
b. thymosin.
c. parathyroid hormone.
d. growth hormone.
e. vasopressin.

vasopressin

Another name for antidiuretic hormone is vasopressin

Which of the following is a function of neurons?
a. phagocytosis
b. information processing
c. secretion of cerebrospinal fluid
d. support
e. isolation of neuroglia

information processing

information processing is a function of neurons

The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
a. oxygen.
b. hemoglobin.
c. carbon dioxide.
d. bicarbonate ion.
e. sodium ion.

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide is the most important chemical regulator of respiration

Most of the carbon dioxide transported by the blood is
a. bound to the same protein as oxygen.
b. bound to hemoglobin.
c. carried by white blood cells.
d. in ionic form as solute (bicarbonate) in the plasma.
e. dissolved in plasma.

in ionic form as solute (bicarbonate) in the plasma.
Most of the carbon dioxide transported by the blood is in ionic form as solute (bicarbonate) in the plasma.

Antibody functions include all of the following except ________.

a. linking soluble antigens together so that they fall out of solution
b. cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched
c. targeting foreign cells so that complement proteins can cause cellular lysis
d. binding and inactivating chemical toxins released by bacteria or other microorganisms

cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched

Antibody functions include all of the following except cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched

Antibody functions include, linking soluble antigens together so that they fall out of solution, targeting foreign cells so that complement proteins can cause cellular lysis, binding and inactivating chemical toxins released by bacteria or other microorganisms

What is the main function of the rods in the eye?

a. depth perception
b. color vision
c. accommodation for near vision
d. vision in dim light

vision in dim light

The main function of the rods in the eye is vision in dim light.

The cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called ________.
a. spermatogonia
b. interstitial cells
c. spermatocytes
d. sustentacular cells

interstitial cells

The cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called interstitial cells

Select the correct statement about the hormonal events of the ovarian cycle.
a. The follicle begins to secrete progesterone in response to estrogen stimulation.
b. Rising levels of estrogen start follicle development.
c. High oestrogen levels result in a surge of LH release.
d. The LH surge stimulates further development of the secondary oocyte.

High oestrogen levels result in a surge of LH release.

In the ovarian cycle high oestrogen levels result in a surge of LH release

The hormone commonly measured in a pregnancy test is
a. hCG.
b. oestrogen.
c. progesterone.
d. LH.
e. FSH.

hCG

The hormone commonly measured in a pregnancy test is hCG

Which of the following factors does not influence heart rate?

a. gender
b. fitness level
c. age
d. skin color

skin color

Skin color does not influence heart rate

The white matter of the spinal cord contains
a. bundles of dendrites.
b. interneurons.
c. sensory and motor nuclei.
d. bundles of myelinated axons .
e. cell bodies.

bundles of myelinated axons .

The white matter of the spinal cord contains bundles of myelinated axons

The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is
a. progesterone.
b. oestrogen.
c. LH.
d. FSH.
e. estradiol.

progesterone

The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is progesterone

Major events associated with inflamation include
a. tears, swelling, pain, and fever.
b. swelling, redness, tissue damage, and altered pH.
c. redness, pus, fever, and rapid heart rate.
d. redness, swelling, heat, and pain.
e. heat, pain, fever, and activation of the complement system.

redness, swelling, heat, and pain.

Major events associated with inflamation include redness, swelling, heat, and pain.

The second heart sound is heard when
a. blood enters the aorta.
b. the atria contract.
c. the AV valves open.
d. the AV valves close.
e. the semilunar valves close.

e. the semilunar valves close.

The second heart sound is heard when the semilunar valves close.

Which of the following is an muscular adaptation as a result of exercise?

a. Muscle fibers become less efficient.
b. Muscle fibers increase their reserves of glycogen.
c. Muscle fibers become smaller in diameter.
d. Muscles become less elastic.
e. Muscles fatigue more rapidly.

Muscle fibers increase their reserves of glycogen

Muscle fibers increase their reserves of glycogen is a muscular adaptation as a result of exercise

The role of the pituitary hormone LH in males is to
a. influence sexual behaviors and sex drive.
b. develop and maintain secondary sex characteristics.
c. initiate sperm production in the testes.
d. stimulate the interstitial cells to produce testosterone.
e. stimulate the sustentacular cells to produce inhibin.

stimulate the interstitial cells to produce testosterone.

The role of the pituitary hormone LH in males is to stimulate the interstitial cells to produce testosterone.

The increase in FSH that occurs at the beginning of of the ovarian cycle triggers

a. menstruation.
b. pregnancy.
c. menopause.
d. ovulation.
e. follicle development.

follicle development
The increase in FSH that occurs at the beginning of of the ovarian cycle triggers follicle development

Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?
a. internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract
b. external intercostals would contract and diaphragm would relax
c. diaphragm contracts, internal intercostals would relax
d. diaphragm would contract, external intercostals would relax

internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract

the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon.

Blood pressure increases with
Choose one answer.
a. increased cardiac output.
b. increased blood volume.
c. increased peripheral resistance.
d. increased heart rate
e. all of the above

all of the above

Blood pressure increases with increased cardiac output, increased blood volume, increased peripheral resistance and increased heart rate.

Information received by the brain concerning internal or external environmental conditions is called a(n)

a. response.
b. action potential.
c. sensation.
d. stimulus.
e. effector.

sensation

Information received by the brain concerning internal or external environmental conditions is called sensation

The posterior pituitary gland secretes
a. FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone.
b. OXT, oxytocin.
c. MSH, meanocyte-stimulating hormone.
d. TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone.
e. ACTH, adenocorticotropic hormone.

OXT, oxytocin

The posterior pituitary gland secretes OXT, oxytocin

Rigor mortis that occurs in skeletal muscles a few hours after death is due to
a. excessive ATP.
b.decreased ATP and increased permeability to calcium.
c. lack of oxygen.
d. lactic acid buildup.
e. excessive ATP and decreased permeability to calcium.

decreased ATP and increased permeability to calcium.

Rigor mortis that occurs in skeletal muscles a few hours after death is due to decreased ATP and increased permeability to calcium.

Interstitial cells produce
a. sperm.
b. nutrients.
c. FSH.
d. testosterone.
e. androgen-inhibiting protein.

testosterone

Interstitial cells produce testosterone

Which center is located in the pons?
a. expiratory
b. pacemaker neuron center
c. pontine respirator group (PRG)
d. inspiratory

pontine respirator group (PRG)

the pontine respirator group is located in the pons

Which of the following structures is not part of the external ear?
a. auditory tube
b. tympanic membrane
c. pinna
d. external acoustic meatus

auditory tube

the auditory tube is not part of the external ear

Oxytocin ________.
a. exerts its most important effects during menstruation
b. release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
c. is an anterior pituitary secretion
d. controls milk production

release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism

oxytocin release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism

Which of the following statements about the female reproductive process is not true?
a. Rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin.
b. Ovulation usually occurs 14 days after the beginning of menses.
c. The monthly discharge of the uterus (menses) is initiated by the decrease in secretion of female hormones.
d. Fertilization usually occurs in the fallopian tube.

Rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin.

The female reproductive system ovulation occurs 14 ddays after beginning of menses, monthly discharge of the uterus is initiated by the decrease in secretion of female hormones and fertilization usuall occurs in the fallopian tube.

Gray matter in the spinal cord is mostly
a. cerebrospinal fluid.
b. cell bodies.
c. fissures.
d. axons.
e. myelin.

cell bodies

Grey matter in the spinal cord is mostly cell bodies

Antibodies cause which of the following reactions?
a. agglutination
b. opsonization
c. neutralization
d. precipitation
e. all of the above

all of the above

Antibodies cause agglutination, opsonization, neutralization and precipitation

The sliding filament model of contraction involves ________.
a. the shortening of thick filaments so that thin filaments slide past
b. the Z discs sliding over the myofilaments
c. actin and myosin shortening but not sliding past each other
d. actin and myosin sliding past each other to partially overlap

actin and myosin sliding past each other to partially overlap

The sliding filament model of contraction involves actin and myosin sliding past each other to partially overlap

The resting membrane potential of a nerve fiber is caused by having the
a. chloride ions inside the cell.
b. sodium ions inside the cell and potassium outside the cell.
c. sodium and potassium ions inside the cell.
d. potassium ions inside the cell and sodium outside the cell.
e. hillock and knob at opposite ends.

potassium ions inside the cell and sodium outside the cell.

The resting membrane potential of a nerve fiber is caused by having the potassium ions inside the cell and sodium outside the cell.

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by
a. diffusion
b. osmosis
c. active transport
d. filtration

diffusion

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by diffusion

The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by ________.

a. phagocyte mobilization
b. vasodilation
c. production of complement and interferon
d. vasoconstriction

vasodilation

the redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to local hyperemia caused by vasodilation

Increased sodium ion concentrations in the body can be caused by
a. cortisol.
b. aldosterone.
c. erythropoietin.
d. thymosin.
e. renin.

aldosterone

Increased sodium ion concentrations in the body can be caused by aldosterone

During the secretory phase of the uterine (menstrual) cycle,
a. the old functional layer is sloughed off.
b. a new functional layer is formed in the uterus.
c. the ovarian follicle is formed.
d. ovulation occurs.
e. secretory glands in the endometrium elarge and increase secretion.

secretory glands in the endometrium elarge and increase secretion.

During the secretory phase of the uterine (menstrual) cycle, secretory glands in the endometrium elarge and increase secretion.

As blood travels from the aorta toward the capillaries the
a. flow increases.
b. viscosity increases.
c. resistance increases.
d. pressure increases.
e. all of the above

resistance increases

As blood travels from the aorta toward the capillaries the resistance increases.

The last stage of labor is the
a. decidual stage.
b. expulsion stage.
c. neonate stage.
d. placental stage.
e. dilation stage.

placental stage

The last stage of labour is placental stage

Normal eye focusing is termed
a. refraction.
b. presbyopia.
c. emmetropia.
d. myopia.
e. hyperopia.

emmetropia

Normal eye focusing is termed emmetropia

Spermatogenesis ________.
a. results in the formation of diploid cells
b. is the process of releasing mature sperm cells into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule
c. uses mitosis to produce gamete cells
d. involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes

involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes
Spermatogenesis involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes

Hemorrhage with a large loss of blood causes ________.
a. a lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output
b. no change in blood pressure but a slower heart rate
c. no change in blood pressure but a change in respiration
d. a rise in blood pressure due to change in cardiac output

a lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output

Hemorrhage with a large loss of blood causes a lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output

Olfactory cells and taste buds are normally stimulated by ________.
a. movement of a cupula
b. substances in solution
c. stretching of the receptor cells
d. the movement of otoliths

substances in solution

Olfactory cells and taste buds are normally stimulated by substances in solution

The effect of endurance-type athletic training may be to lower the resting heart rate. This phenomenon ________.

a. does not occur in aerobic training
b. results in decreased cardiac output and increased blood pressure
c. is a sign of dangerous overexertion
d. is caused by hypertrophy of the heart muscle and increased cardiac output

is caused by hypertrophy of the heart muscle and increased cardiac output

The effect of endurance-type athletic training may be to lower the resting heart rate. This phenomenon is caused by hypertrophy of the heart muscle and increased cardiac output

The greatest area of the sensory cortex is devoted to the

a. legs.
b. face.
c. chest.
d. back.
e. feet.

face

the greatest area of the sensory cortex is devoted to the face

Opening of sodium channels in the membrane of a neuron results in

a. repolarization.
b. hyperpolarization.
c. depolarization.
d. increased negative charge inside the membrane.
e. none of the above

depolarization

Opening of sodium channels in the membrane of a neuron results in depolarization

A person who suffers from emphysema can exhibit signs of
a. respiratory acidosis.
b. metabolic alkalosis.
c. metabolic acidosis.
d. respiratory alkalosis.
e. none of the above

respiratory acidosis

A person who suffers from emphysema can exhibit signs of respiratory acidosis

Stereoscopic (binocular) vision results when the
a. images in each eye are slightly different.
b. images in both eyes are identical.
c. brain interprets the images and alters them.
d. rods of one eye are stimulated, and cones are stimulated in the other.
e. none of the above

images in each eye are slightly different

Steroscopic (binocular) vision results when images in each eye are slightly different

Receptors for hearing are located in the ________.
a. tympanic membrane
b. semicircular canals
c. cochlea
d. vestibule

cochlea

Receptors for hearing are located in the cochlea

Hypoventilation would cause
a. respiratory acidosis.
b. metabolic acidosis.
c. respiratory alkalosis.
d. metabolic alkalosis.
e. none of the above

respiratory acidosis

Hypoventilation would cause respiratory acidosis

Which of the following structures is not part of the external ear?
a. auditory tube
b. tympanic membrane
c. pinna
d. external acoustic meatus

auditory tube

the auditory tube is not part of the external ear, the tympanic membrane, pinna and external acoustic meatus are.

The hormone ADH

a. causes the kidneys to produce a large volume of urine.
b. stimulates the kidneys to retain sodium ions.
c. stimulates water conservation at the kidneys.
d. is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland in response to changes in blood osmolarity. e. all of the above

stimulates water conservation at the kidneys

the hormone ADH stimulates water conservation at the kidneys.

Which of the following is aldosterone able to affect?
a. formation of plasma proteins
b. pH regulation
c. removal of wastes
d. regulation of intracellular body fluid volume
e. regulation of body fluid concentration

regulation of body fluid concentration

Aldosterone is able to regulate body fluid concentration

If a resting potential becomes more negative, the cell

a. repolarizes.
b. depolarizes.
c. hyperpolarizes.
d. refracts.
e. summates.

hyperpolarizes

if a resting potential becomes more negative, the cell hyperpolarizes

When a protein or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell,
a. a second messenger appears in the cytoplasm.
b. the hormone is transported to the nucleus, where it alters the activity of the DNA.
c. the cell becomes inactive.
d. the plasma membrane becomes depolarized.
e. the hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm.

a second messenger appears in the cytoplasm

When a protein or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, a second messenger appears in the cytoplasm

The all-or-none principle states that
a. all stimuli will produce identical action potentials.
b. all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials.
c. only motor stimuli can activate action potentials.
d. only sensory stimuli can activate action potentials.
e. the greater the magnitude of the stimuli, the greater the intensity of the action potential.

all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials.

The all-or-none principle states that all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials.

The area between Z lines is the
a. sarcomere.
b. myofibril.
c. sarcolemma.
d. myofilament.
e. sarcoplasmic reticulum.

sarcomere

The area between Z lines is the sarcomere

Growth hormone causes
a. increased rate of lipid catabolism.
b. increased protein synthesis.
c. growth of bones and skeletal muscle.
d. enhanced movement of amino acids into cells.
e. all of the above

all of the above

Growth hormone causes, increased rate of lipid catabolism, increased protein synthesis, growth of bones and skeletal muscle and enhanced movement of amino acids into cells

Hormone-producing cells of the testes produce
a. oestrogen.
b. progesterone.
c. cortisone.
d. semen.
e. testosterone.

testosterone

Hormone-producing cells of the testes produce testosterone

The term used to describe muscular growth in response to usage is
a. myopathy.
b. multiple sclerosis.
c. muscular dystrophy.
d. hypertrophy.
e. atrophy.

hypertrophy

the term used to describe muscular growth in response to usage is hypertrophy

________ causes a direct increase in blood volume by controlling water loss.
a. ADH
b. Erythropoietin
c. Renin
d. Angiotensin
e. ACTH

ADH

ADH causes a direct increase in blood volume by controlling water loss

A 10 percent increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will

a. increase the rate of breathing.
b. decrease the rate of breathing.
c. decrease the alveolar ventilation rate.
d. decrease pulmonary ventilation.
e. decrease the vital capacity.

increase the rate of breathing.

A 10 percent increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will increase the rate of breathing

A neural cortex (gray matter) is found on the surface of the
a. cerebrum.
b. midbrain.
c. cerebellum.
d. pons.
e. both A and C

A and C

A neural cortex (gray matter) is found on the surface of the cerebrum and cerebellum

Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most ________ is found in the intracellular fluid.
a. potassium
b. chloride
c. iron
d. magnesium

potassium

Whereas sodium is found mainly in extracellular fluid, most potassium is found in intracellular fluid

The most important factor affecting the pH of body fluids is the concentration of

a. hydrochloric acid.
b. ketone bodies.
c. carbon dioxide.
d. lactic acid.
e. organic acids.

carbon dioxide

The most important factor affecting the pH of body fluids is the concentration of carbon dioxide

Where are the hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary made?
a. posterior pituitary
b. anterior pituitary
c. thyroid
d. suprarenal gland
e. hypothalamus

hypothalamus

The hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary are made in the hypothalamus

The term general senses refers to sensations of

a. hot and cold.
b. pain.
c. touch and vibration.
d. both B and C
e. all of the above

e, all of the above

The term general senses refers to sensations of hot and cold, pain, touch and vibration

Which of the following factors is most likely to result in an increase in blood pressure?

a. decreased volume of body fluids
b. increased excretion of sodium
c. decreased blood flow to the skin
d. increased vessel diameter
e. increased excretion of water

decreased blood flow to the skin

decreased blood flow to the skin is most likely to result in an increase in blood pressure

The form of circulatory shock known as hypovolemic shock is ________.

a. always fatal
b. shock that results from large-scale loss of blood volume, or after severe vomiting or diarrhea
c. only that form of shock caused by large-scale loss of blood
d. any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally

shock that results from large-scale loss of blood volume, or after severe vomiting or diarrhea

The form of circulatory shock known as hypovolemic shock is shock that results from large-scale loss of blood volume, or after severe vomiting or diarrhea

The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called ________.
a. chemotaxis
b. diapedesis
c. margination
d. phagocytosis

chemotaxis

The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called chemotaxis

The pituitary hormone that promotes testosterone release in males and ovulation in females is
a. FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone.
b. LH, leutenising hormone.
c. TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone.
d. ACTH, adenocorticotropic hormone.
e. GH, growth hormone.

LH, Leutenising hormone

The pituitary hormone that promotes testosterone release in males and ovulation in females is LH

Depolarization of the atria is represented on an electrocardiogram by the
a. PR complex.
b. T wave.
c. P wave.
d. S wave.
e. QRS complex.

P wave

The P wave on an electrocardiogram represents depolarization of the atria

The ________ of the heart is(are) located in the walls of the ventricles.

a. SA node.
b. bundle branches.
c. AV node.
d. bundle of His.
e. Purkinje fibers.

Purkinje fibers

The Purkinje fibers of the heart are located in the walls of the ventricles

The second heart sound is heard when
a. blood enters the aorta.
b. the atria contract.
c. the AV valves open.
d. the AV valves close.
e. the semilunar valves close.

the semilunare valves close

The second heart sound is heard when the semilunar valves close

The amount of blood the heart pumps in one minute is
a. cardiac output.
b. end diastolic volume.
c. cardiac reserve.
d. end systolic volume.
e. stroke volume.

cardiac output

The amount of bood the heart pumps in one minute is cardiac output

Human egg and sperm are similar in that ________.
a. about the same number of each is produced per month
b. they have the same number of chromosomes
c. they have the same degree of motility
d. they are about the same size

They have the same number of chromosomes

Human egg and sperm are similar in that they have the same number of chromosomes

________ determine(s) what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist.

a. Our genes
b. The type of antigen
c. Memory cell production
d. Enzymes present at the time of the invasion

Our genes

Our genes dertermine what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognise and resist

Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies.

a. Antibodies may directly destroy "invaders."
b. Antibodies can cause the agglutination of erythrocytes during a mismatched nblood transfusion.
c. Neutralization is the process by which antibodies cause invading cells to clump together.
d. Antibodies are present on all pathogens.

Antibodies can cause the agglutination of erythrocytes during a mismatched nblood transfusion.

The release of parathyroid hormone is controlled by

a. TSH.
b. the hypothalamus.
c. blood calcium levels.
d. thyroid hormone.
e. all of the above

blood calcuim levels

The release of parathyroid hormone is controlled by blood calcium levels

The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________.

a. the presence of the appropriate receptors on, or in, the cells of the target tissue or organ
b. nothing all hormones of the human body are able to stimulate any and all cell types because hormones are powerful and nonspecific
c. the location of the tissue or organ with respect to the circulatory path
d. the membrane potential of the cells of the target organ

the presence of the appropriate receptors on, or in, the cells of the target tissue or organ

The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on the presence of the appropriate receptors on, or in, the cells of the target tissue or organ

Sperm production occurs in the

a. epididymis.
b. seminal vesicles.
c. ductus deferens.
d. seminiferous tubules.
e. rete testis.

seminiferous tubules

Sperm production occurs in the seminiferous tubules

Which of the following is not involved in the short-term controls of blood pressure?

a. reflex arcs involving baroreceptors
b. chemoreceptors
c. altering blood volume
d. reflex arcs associated with vasomotor fibers

altering blood volume

The ossicles
a. cause the tympanic membrane to vibrate.
b. produce a nerve stimulus in the cochlea.
c. recieve vibrations from the cochlea .
d. attach the oval window to the round window.
e. amplify vibrations.

amplify vibrations

The ossicles amplify vibrations

Cells that help to regulate the immune response are

a. cytotoxic cells.
b. helper T cells.
c. plasma cells.
d. B cells.
e. NK cells.

helper T cells

Cells that help regulate the immune response are helper T cells

Hyperventilation may cause a(n)

a. decrease in blood carbon dioxide concentration and an increase in pH.
b. increase in blood carbon dioxide concentration and an increase in pH.
c. decrease in blood carbon dioxide concentration and a drop in pH.
d. increase in blood carbon dioxide concentration and an decrease in pH.
e. none of the above

decrease in blood carbon dioxide concentration and an increase in pH.

Hyperventilation may cause a decrease in blood carbon dioxide concentration and an increase in pH

Dehydration would cause

a. decreased secretion of ADH.
b. increased thirst.
c. fluid to shift from the ECF to the ICF.
d. decreased levels of aldosterone.
e. all of the above

increase thirst

Dehydration would cause increased thirst

Chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata are sensitive to blood


a. oxygen concentration.
b. carbon dioxide concentration.
c. pH.
d. bicarbonate concentration.
e. both B and C

e. both B and C

Chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata are sensitive to blood carbon dioxide and bicarbonate concentration

In response to decreased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys could produce
a. a larger volume of urine.
b. more dilute urine.
c. urine with a lower concentration of potassium ions.
d. urine with a higher concentration of sodium ions.
e. urine with less urea.

urine with a higher concentration of sodium ions.

In response to decreased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys could produce urine with a higher concentration of sodium ions.

The stage of labor during which the uterus prepares to expel the fetus is the

a. fetal stage.
b. dilation stage.
c. placental stage.
d. expulsion stage.
e. emergence stage.

dilation stage

During the dilation stage of labor the uterus prepares to expel the fetus

Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called ________.

a. proteins
b. enzymes
c. hormones
d. antibodies

hormones

Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called hormones

Electrolyte balance ________.
a. refers to the phosphate balance in the body
b. may be disturbed due to higher loss of electrolytes on hot days
c. is usually difficult to maintain
d. can be disrupted because water is not free to move between cells and capillaries

may be disturbed due to higher loss of electrolytes on hot days

Electrolyte balance may be disturbed due to higher loss of electrolytes on hot days

________ determine(s) what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist.
a. Our genes
b. The type of antigen
c. Memory cell production
d. Enzymes present at the time of the invasion

Our genes

Our genes dertermine what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist

Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies.
a. Antibodies may directly destroy "invaders."
b. Antibodies can cause the agglutination of erythrocytes during a mismatched nblood transfusion.
c. Neutralization is the process by which antibodies cause invading cells to clump together.
d. Antibodies are present on all pathogens.

Antibodies can cause the agglutination of erythrocytes during a mismatched nblood transfusion.

At rest, myosin molecules are
a. bound to actin molecules.
b. blocked from binding to calcium ions.
c. blocked from binding to actin molecules.
d. bound to troponin molecules.
e. bound to ATP molecules.

blocked from binding to actin molecules

At rest, myosin molecules are blocked from binding to actin molecules.

The release of parathyroid hormone is controlled by
a. TSH.
b. the hypothalamus.
c. blood calcium levels.
d. thyroid hormone.
e. all of the above

blood calcium levels

The release of parathyroid hormone is controlled by blood calcium levels.

The specialized sarcolemma that contains acetylcholine receptors is the
a. synaptic cleft.
b. I band.
c. synaptic knob.
d. motor unit.
e. motor end plate.

motor end plate

The specialized sarcolemma that contains acetylcholine receptors is the motor end plate

If Broca's area is damaged, what might result?
a. mental retardation
b. loss of upper limb control
c. loss of ability to speak
d. loss of memory
e. loss of sensation

loss of the ability to speak

If the Broca's are is damaged you might lose the ability to speak

Hormone-producing cells of the testes produce
a. oestrogen.
b. progesterone.
c. cortisone.
d. semen.
e. testosterone.

testosterone

The testes produce testosterone

During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ________.

a. oestrogen reaches its highest levels
b. progesterone levels are at their highest
c. LH reaches its highest levels
d. the Graafian follicle forms

progesterone levels are at their hightest

During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle progesterone levels are at their hightest

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