The study of life and living organisms. A problem solving process.
Gradual process by which something changes into a different and usually more complex form.
Basic biological molecules join to form larger biological __________.
The main oxygen transport protein in muscle. Made of a single chain.
The main oxygen transport protein in blood. Made of two alpha chains and two beta chains.
A collection of organisms whose members interact with each other within an ecosystem.
All organisms in an area together with the physical environment which they inhabit.
Organ systems are made of organs which are made of _____________ which are made of cells.
State problem, refine the problem, propose hypothesis, make observations,
Tentative, untested explanation of a scientific issue.
The act or process of causing something to happen,
A statistical comparison of two variables. Does not necessarily mean that one causes the other.
A form of matter tha cannot be decomposed into simpler substance by ordinary chemical methods.
Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Calcium, Phosphorus
The six elements that make up 99% of the matter in living systems.
The fundamental unit of chemical matter.
An atom's center of mass and center of positive charge.
A positively charged subatomic particle located in the nucleus.
An uncharged subatomic particle located in the nucleus.
A negatively charged subatomic particle located outside the nucleus.
Atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons in the nuclei.
A charged species that results from the gain or loss of electrons from a neutral atom or molecule.
An attractive forve between tow or more atoms or ions that holds them together.
A bond whose electrons are shared between atoms.
A chemical bond formed by the attraction between positive and negative ions.
A group of at least two covalently bonded atoms
An expression indicating the number of each type of atom in one molecule of a substance.
A substance composed of two or more elements combined in fixed proportions.
A weak to moderate attractive force between a hydrogen atom bonded to oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine, and an oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine atom on another molecule. Usually represented by dotted lines.
A process in which a substance or substances are converted into one or more new substances with different propertied and composition.
A chemical reaction produces energy when the difference between the reactants and the products is ____________zero.
The energy needed to increase the surface area of a liquid by a given amount.
A condition or state in which a substance has an uneven distribution of electron density. Enables compounds to dissolve and enables hydrogen bonding.
Occurs when one atom in a bond is more electronegative than the other.
Occurs when there is?
The tendency of an atom in a bond to attract shared bonding electrons.
A liquid which dissolves another substance without any change in its chemical composition.
The attractive force between similar molecules in the same phase.
The attractive force between molecules in one phase and different molecules in another phase.
The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a 1 gram sample of a substance by 1 degree Celsius.
A compound that contains carbon.
Have ths same molecular formul;a but different chemical and physical properties. The atoms are bonded in a different order. Some hydrocarbons are an example of Isomers.
A specific combination of bonded atoms that reacts in a characteristic and predictable way. Examples are Ethers and Alchohols which are represented by a generic molecule. Includes Alchohol, Ether, Aldehyde, Ketone, Carboxylic Acid, and Ester., Amine, Amide, and Phosphoesters.
Used by organisms to produce energy, Most common form is glucose. Also includes Fructose and, less commonly, Ribose, and Deoxyribose.
Biological compounds containing and amino group and a carboxylic acid group.with one of 20 side chains.
A compound containing a nitrogenous base covalently bonded to a pentose sugar and a phosphate group. Classified by the pentose sugar they contain, Ribose or Deoxyribose.
A compound containing a nitrogenous base covalently bonded to a pentose sugar
Very large molecules with molecular masses as high as several million atomic mass units. Polymers of small similar molecules. Includes Polysaccharides, fats, and proteins.
Where two molecules are joined by the elimination of a smaller molecule.
Energy, Support, and Transport
Three roles of Macromolecules.
One of the most abundant carbohydrates providing either energy storage or structural support. Polymers of 10 or more simple sugars, composed of thousands of monomers and up to 100M molecular mass.. Includes Cellulose in plants and Chitin animals with exoskeletons.. Also includes starch. and glycogen.
Macromolecules made from polypeptides. Two type are globular and fibrose.
Group of Macromolecules that Includes Triglycerides and Phospholipids.
The main oxygen carrying protein in blood. Globular.