Sociology test 2

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Jane is a 49 year-old woman of Irish-German descent. What do these characteristics have in common?

Ascribed Status

Signs that identify a position in society someone occupies are referred to as

Status.

A position in society that someone holds that cuts across other statuses they hold, such as being a high ranking Army officer, college president, or handicapped would be considered their

status set.

The difference between status and role is

that you occupy a status, play a role.

Which of the following is not one of the five functional requisites that every society must fulfill to survive?

Replacing numbers, socializing new members, producing and distributing goods, preserving orders, and providing a sense of purpose

According to Durkheim, when a society increases in size, its division of labor becomes more specialized. People begin to depend on one another and become interdependent. This form of social cohesion he termed

organic solidarity.

An approach to social interaction in which social life is analyzed in terms of the stage is called .

Dramaturgy

If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences. This classic statement is known as the

Thomas Theorem.

Ferdinand Tonnies' term for the type of society he referred to as "the intimate community" was _______. The term he used to describe the type of society characterized by "impersonal association" was ________.

Gemeinschaft, Gesellschaft

The "dawn of civilization" is most associated with which social revolution?

Agricultural Revolution

What is the key feature of post-industrial societies as it relates to the work force?

Nothing is produced, just transmitted

There are New York Yankee fans in every sta-te in America, throughout Canada, and in nations all over the world. Sociologically, which concept best describes these fans?

Category

A group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation is referred to as a

Primary Group.

Kody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and Satan's Slaves. Kody feels very antagonistic towards the Bloods and the Slaves. For Kody, these two rival gangs would be considered

out-groups.

Different situations require that different styles of leadership be used to meet the primary goals of the group. Imagine a tour group that is lost in the desert. Which type of leadership would be best for the tour guide to adopt?

Authoritarian Leader

Who conducted the classic experiment addressing the power of peer pressure that included six "stooges" and one actual test subject viewing cards with lines of varying length?

Dr. Asch

What did Stanley Milgram's "teacher-learner" experiment demonstrate?

People obey authority

How would an organization minimize group think from occurring?

Widespread research

An approach to life in which there is an emphasis on rules, efficiency, and practical results

rationality

What is the major emphasis of the traditional orientation to life?

The past is the best guide for present

In which two societies are people evaluated based on "the bottom line"?

Industrial and post industrial

The early theorist who proposed religious beliefs were the key to whether or not a society embraced capitalism was

Max Weber.

Samantha works in a place that is hierarchical, has a division of labor, written rules, communications and records, and in which the administration treats workers impersonally. Based on these characteristics, we can conclude that Samantha works in a[n] .

bureaucracy

The experience of being cut off from the product of one's labor that results in a feeling of powerlessness is called

alienation.

The Boy Scouts, the Veterans of Foreign Wars, most civic organization, and all other organizations that people join because of mutual interest are all examples of

formal organization.

The domination of organizations by a small, self-perpetuating elite is called

The Power Elite.

People work more effectively in small groups and work teams than in a centralized command structure. What is the sociological explanation for this?

Greater flexibility encouraged creativity, productivity, and company loyalty

It is believed by some sociologists that attempts to humanize the workplace are simply ways to manipulate workers into cooperating in their own exploitation. This belief is most aligned with the

Conflict perspective.

Violation of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called .

crimes

The concept of the relativity of deviance is best illustrated by which of the following statements?

it is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant

Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcasts of the group to which they once belonged are called

degradation ceremonies

The term degradation ceremony was coined by sociologist

harold garfinkel

Based on differential association theory, what is the most likely background shared by juvenile delinquents?

they are from families that have a history of being involved in crime

The significance of names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior is the focus of .

Labeling theory

The theory developed by Robert Merton is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them is

Structural Functional theory.

John desires the best things in life...a fast car, designer clothes, and membership in exclusive clubs. But rather than work his way through the system, he has discovered he can have all these things by selling crack cocaine in the inner city. How would Merton classify John?

An Innovator

Sociologists who view law as an instrument of oppression and used to control workers are aligned most with which sociological perspective?

Conflict Theorists

How would conflict theorists classify migrant workers, seasonal employees, and members of the workforce who are subject to layoffs?

The working poor and underclass

What are the three variables Max Weber identified as defining social class?

Wealth, power, and prestige

. Based on the Marxist orientation of conflict sociologists, how many distinct social classes exist?

2, Those who own and those who work

When used by sociologists, the term "wealth," refers to

total value of everything someone owns, sans debt.

Ruth owns the Head 2 Toe Boutique where she employs 15 workers. According to Erik Wright's model of social class, Ruth would be classified as a[n]

Entrepreneur.

What are the four variables Gilbert and Kahl used to develop a six-class model to reflect the class structure of the United States and other capitalist countries? .

Education, power, property, prestige

What is the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next?

Intergenerational Mobility

Changes in society that cause large numbers of people to move up or down the class ladder which causes one class to increase while others decrease is called

Social mobility.

What is the strongest variable in developing correlations to which social groups are in poverty?

Race/ethnicity

The most likely segment of the population in the United States to experience poverty today are .

Children

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