structured social inequality or, more specifically, systematic inequalities between groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships.
a condition whereby no differences in wealth, power, prestige, or status based on nonnatural conventions exist. (Rousseau)
a two-directional relationship, one that goes both ways. (Hegel) ex. master-slave
the notion that everyone is created equal in the eyes of God.
Equality of Opportunity
the idea that inequality of condition is acceptable so long as the rules of the game, so to speak, remain fair.
a society of commerce (modern capitalist society, for example) in which the maximization of profit is the primary business incentive.
Equality of Condition
the idea that everyone should have an equal starting point. ex: affirmative action.
Equality of Outcome
a position that argues each player must end up with the same amount regardless of the fairness of the "game." (Marxist, "from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs."
Free Rider Problem
the notion that when more than one person is responsible for getting something done, the incentive is for each individual to shirk responsibility and hope others will pull the extra weight. (Social Loafing)
form of stratification; politically based system characterized by limited social mobility.
form of stratification; religion based system characterized by no social mobility.
form of stratification; economically based system characterized by relative categorization and somewhat loose social mobility.
the working class of the capitalist society. (Marx)
the employing class of the capitalist society. (Marx)
Contradictory Class Locations
the idea that people can occupy locations in the class structure which fall between the two "pure" classes, proletariat and bourgeoisie. (Wright)
Status Hierarchy System
form of stratification; based on social prestige or title. (Weber)
Elite-mass Dichotomy system
form of stratification; has a governing elite, a few leaders who broadly hold the power of society. (Pareto liked, Mills disliked)
a society where status and mobility are based on individual attributes, ability and achievement. (Pareto)
said that the three decision makers in society are
1. Economic Institutions
2. Political Order
3. Military Order
Socioeconomic Status (SES)
an individual's position in a stratified social order; any measure that attempts to classify groups, individuals, families, or households in terms of indicators such as occupation, income, wealth, and education.
money received by a person for work or from returns on investments.
a family's or individual's net worth (that is, total assets minus total debts).
a term for the economic elite; top of the socioeconomic food chain.
a term commonly used to describe those individuals with nonmanual jobs that pay significantly more than the poverty line-- though this is highly debated and expansive category, particularly in the United States, where broad swathes of the population consider themselves middle class.
the movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society. (Sorokin)
mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy.
approach that ranks individuals by socioeconomic status, including income and educational attainment, and seeks to specify the attributes characteristic of people who end up in more desirable occupations. (Blau and Dudley)
18th century philosopher; argued that private property creates social inequality and that this inequality ultimately leads to social conflict.
thinkers such as Adam Ferguson and John Millar agreed that private property creates inequality, but argued that this was good because it means that some people are getting ahead and creating assets (a form of wealth that can be stored for the future).
viewed inequality favorably, but only as means of population control.
his concept of class is based on grouping people according to the value of their property or labor in the commercial marketplace.
people essentially trade positions--the number of overall jobs stays the same, with some people moving up into better jobs and others moving down into worse ones.
related to the issue of stratification because because it goes into the heart of the problem of how to promote business growth, how wealth should be distributed, how to encourage meritocracy, and how to build a more equitable society.
believed most social relationships were based on a master-slave model of mutual dependence; overtime, society would have more and more free people and the master-slave model would die out as the primary social relationship.
said that the over-population problem in Africa is due to a high mortality rate of children. Mothers overcompensate for their dying children by have many more, almost doubling the population. Therefore, the solution to overpopulation and fertility is to reduce the mortality rate. PARADOX YO.