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Monomer

The simple starting material or single unit from which a polymer is built. It refers to the repeat units that make up the polymer chains. A molecule that may react chemically to another molecule of the same type to form a larger molecule.

Polymer

Compound made of several repeating units (monomers). A molecule composed of repeated subunits. Several smaller, similar units in a chain to create a larger molecule with new properties.

4 Macromolecules

Protein, carbohydrate, nucleic acid, lipid

What are the monomers that make up proteins?

amino acids

What are the monomers that make up carbohydrates?

monosaccharides, simple sugars

What are the monomers that make up nucleic acids?

nucleotides

Why are lipids not considered polymers?

Polymer = Several smaller, similar units in a chain to create a larger molecule with new properties. Lipids = have no single sub-unit

Recognize the four macromolecules based on structural diagrams

Protein - CCN backbone, lipid - three chains (triglycerol), polysaccharide - multi rings connected, disaccharide - two carb rings connected

What is the difference between mono, di, and polysaccharides?

mono = one simple sugar, di = two saccharides covalently linked, poly = sequence of monosaccharide and disaccharide units to make is longer/bigger

What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated acids (fats)?

sat - solid at room temp, not essential, harder to digest, carbon atoms have a single bond between them and as many hydrogen atoms as possible are bonded to the carbon atoms, unsat - liquid at room temp, contains a carbon-carbon double bond

What is the role of the dehydration synthesis in building up polymers?

an H from one carbohydrate and an OH from another are taken out. They form water. The two carbohydrates are then joined together by a bond called a glycosidic linkage. you build while taking water out

What is the role of hydrolysis in breaking down polymers?

opposite of dehydration synthesis. add water to break down a molecule.

How does Benedict's solution work and what does it test for? What does a positive result look like?

mix with food and heat. test of monosaccharides (simple sugars, glucose), light blue in color, turns to green, yellow/orange, or even red when heated in the presence of simple sugars

How does Biuret work and what does it test for? What does a positive result look like?

shake with test food. protein indicator, light blue in color, changes to violet or purple (very light violet to deep purple)

How does Lugol's Iodine work and what does it test for? What does a positive result look like?

mix with test food. test for starch, yellow or light brown in color, positive it turns dark purple or even black

How does Sudan III work and what does it test for? What does a positive result look like?

mix with test food. test for lipids, changes to orange red

Proteins are polymers. TF

True

Glucose is a polysaccharide. TF

False

Lugol's Iodine indicates the presence of sugar. TF

False

There are 20 different amino acids. TF

True

Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are good sources of energy. TF

False

A monounsaturated fat only has one double bond. TF

True

Saturated fats are liquid at room temperature. TF

False

Hydrolysis is the chemical reaction that helps build up polymers.

False

Since water is a polar molecule, why do lipids not dissolve in water?

Lipids are nonpolar.

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