Chapter 21: The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses

67 terms by amy_may 

Ready to study?
Start with Flashcards

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Pearson Human Anatomy & Physiology, Marieb/Hoehn

A "foreign" molecule which can invoke the immune response is called a(n)

- hapten.
- antigen.
- antibody.
- colony-stimulating factor.
- immunoglobulin.

- antigen.

Active artificially acquired immunity is a result of

- contact with a pathogen.
- vaccination.
- antibodies passed on from mother to fetus through the placenta.
- injection of an immune serum.
- antibodies passed on from mother to baby through breast milk.

- vaccination.

Antibodies are produced in cells called

- natural killer cells.
- beta cells.
- plasma cells.
- helper T-cells.
- memory cells.

- plasma cells.

Complement proteins work by

- creating an impermeable barrier.
- phagocytosis of target cells.
- forming pores in the membranes of target cells.
- producing antibodies.
- neutralization of antigens.

- forming pores in the membranes of target cells.

Cytotoxic T cells kill target cells

- by releasing oxidizing agents.
- by phagocytosis.
- through injection of tumor necrosis factor.
- by secreting antibodies.
- through insertion of perforins into the target's membrane.

- through insertion of perforins into the target's membrane.

Lymphocytes that develop immunocompetence in the thymus are

- T lymphocytes.
- B lymphocytes.
- NK cells.

- T lymphocytes.

Saliva and lacrimal fluids contain this enzyme that destroys bacteria.

- Pepsin
- Amylase
- Salivase
- Trypsin
- Lysozyme

- Lysozyme

The immune cell that allows for subsequent recognition of an antigen resulting in a secondary response is called a(n)

- basophil.
- antigen-presenting cell.
- helper T-cell.
- plasma cell.
- memory cell.

- memory cell.

The primary mechanism of antibody action is

- phagocytosis.
- agglutination.
- neutralization.
- complement activation.
- precipitation.

- complement activation.

These molecules are secreted by leukocytes and macrophages and result in a fever.

- Pyrogens
- Heparin
- Antibodies
- Histamine
- Keratin

- Pyrogens

This type of antibody binds to mast cells and basophils, thus invoking inflammation.

- IgA
- IgG
- IgE
- IgM
- IgD

- IgE

This type of disease results from the inability of the immune system to distinguish self from non-self antigens.

- SCID
- Allergy
- Anaphylaxis
- Autoimmune disease
- Immunodeficiency

- Autoimmune disease

When a localized area exhibits increased capillary filtration, hyperemia, and swelling, this is an indication that

- an immune response is underway.
- antigens are present.
- fever is developing.
- inflammation is occurring.
- antibodies are phagocytizing target cells.

- inflammation is occurring.

Which cell does NOT have a direct role in phagocytosis?

- Basophil
- Eosinophil
- Macrophage
- Neutrophil
- Kupffer cell

- Basophil

Which cells phagocytize antigen-bearing cells and bind them to their MHCs?

- NK cells
- Antigen presenting cells
- All immune cells
- Helper T-cells
- Plasma cells

- Antigen presenting cells

Which cells stimulate both arms of the immune response?

- Basophils
- Killer T-cells
- Plasma cells
- Helper T-cells
- Complement cells

- Helper T-cells

Which nonspecific defense cells specialize in attacking cancer cells and virus-infected cells?

- Natural killer cells
- Basophils
- Helper T-lymphocytes
- Plasma cells
- Macrophages

- Natural killer cells

Which of the following is a nonspecific barrier defense?

- Complements
- Natural killer cells
- Mucous membranes
- Macrophages
- Antibodies

- Mucous membranes

Which statement below is characteristic of a secondary humoral response?

- It triggers fever.
- It only occurs in the spleen.
- It results in less antibody secretion.
- It results in less memory cell circulation.
- It occurs much more rapidly than a primary response.

- It occurs much more rapidly than a primary response.

Which type of molecule is produced by viral-infected cells to communicate to non-infected cells of the presence of a virus?

- Complement
- Interferon
- Interleukin
- Pyrogen
- Antigen

- Interferon

Which of the following is NOT a surface barrier to pathogen influx?

- Complement cascade
- Saliva and tears
- Skin secretions
- Mucous membranes

- Complement cascade

Which cells of the innate immune response are responsible for detecting and destroying parasites?

- Natural killer cells
- Mast cells
- Eosinophils
- Neutrophils

- Eosinophils

Which of the following is NOT one of the cardinal signs of inflammation?

- Pain
- Redness
- Heat
- Opsonization
- Swelling

- Opsonization

The process that begins when a helper T-cell binds to an MHC class II protein on a displaying cell is known as

- T-cell proliferation.
- self antigen recognition.
- costimulation.
- antigen proliferation.

- costimulation.

All of the following are examples of autoimmune disorders EXCEPT

- Grave's disease.
- systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
- Myasthenia gravis
- sickle cell anemia.
- rheumatoid arthritis.

- sickle cell anemia.

All of the following are examples of characteristics of adaptive defenses EXCEPT

- they have memory.
- they are systemic.
- They are usually initiated in a lymph node.
- we are born with them.
- they are specific.

- we are born with them.

Which of the following is a primary lymphoid organ?

- Spleen
- Thymus
- Peyer's patch
- Lymph node
- Tonsil

- Thymus

Which of the following is the hallmark of the humoral immune response?

- Antigen presentation
- Phagocytosis
- Binding of antibody to the antigen.
- Cell lysis by T cells
- Interferon production

- Binding of antibody to the antigen.

Which of the following is not an innate defense mechanism of the body?

- fever
- B lymphocytes
- skin
- inflammation

- B lymphocytes

Which of the following does not originate from a monocyte?

- microglia
- Kupffer cells
- natural killer cells
- free macrophages

- natural killer cells

The ability of a phagocyte to adhere to a particular particle depends on its ability to

- coat the particle with protein.
- recognize the carbohydrate signature of the particle.
- produce a respiratory rush.
- coat the particle with antibodies.

- recognize the carbohydrate signature of the particle.

Which of the following statements is false about natural killer cells?

- They attach infected or cancerous cells that lack self-surface receptors.
- They are large granular lymphocytes.
- They are not specific for each antigen.
- They destroy cells by phagocytosis.

- They destroy cells by phagocytosis.

Which of the following inflammatory chemicals is derived from arachidonic acid?

- perforin
- bradykinin
- prostaglandin
- histamine

- prostaglandin

Which of the following steps is the first step in an inflammatory response?

- release of leukocytosis inducing factor
- adhesion of the neutrophils cell adhesion molecules to antigen
- positive chemotaxis
- diapedesis

- release of leukocytosis inducing factor

In the respiratory burst, _____________ are released, which have potent cell-killing ability.

- neutrophils
- platelet derived growth factors
- free radicals
- histamines

- free radicals

Leukotrienes cause

- dilation of the small blood vessels in an injured area.
- neutrophils to migrate to an area of inflammation.
- the release of digestive enzymes outside the cell.
- apoptosis of cells.

- dilation of the small blood vessels in an injured area.

Toll-like receptors are found on

- lymphocytes.
- mast cells.
- macrophages.
- neutrophils.

- macrophages.

Which of the following statements about infectious granulomas is false?

- The tuberculosis bacillus can cause them.
- They contain a central region of infected macrophages.
- They provide life-long protection to the host against the causative pathogen.
- They appear as tumor-like growths.

- They provide life-long protection to the host against the causative pathogen.

Interferons can be used to treat all of the following except

- cancer.
- muscular dystrophy.
- Hepatitis C.
- viral infections.

- muscular dystrophy.

All of the following are functions of interferon except that

- it mobilizes natural killer cells.
- it interferes with viral replication in affected cells.
- it only occurs naturally.
- it is not viral specific.

- it only occurs naturally.

Which of the following processes is most similar to complement fixation?

- chemotaxis
- diapedesis
- antibody formation
- blood clotting

- blood clotting

The classical and alternate pathway for complement fixation converge at

- production of C-reactive protein.
- lysis of the foreign cell.
- insertion of the membrane attack complex.
- the release of factor B, D, and P.

- insertion of the membrane attack complex.

Which of the following minerals needed for bacterial reproduction does both the liver and spleen sequester during a fever?

- zinc
- phosphorous
- magnesium
- copper

- zinc

Which of the following does not apply to the specific defensive system?

- It has memory.
- It is immediate.
- It is specific.
- It is systemic.

- It is immediate.

Antigen is a contraction of

- antigen etc.
- antigenic determinants.
- anti-genetic.
- antibody genes.

- antigenic determinants.

Which hypersensitivity is caused by T-lymphocytes?

- acute
- subacute
- chronic
- delayed

- delayed

In the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restrictive process

- T-lymphocytes with self-antigens go through negative selection.
- T-lymphocytes with self-antigens only go through positive selection.
- T-lymphocytes with self-antigens go through negative and positive selection.
- immature T-lymphocytes go through apoptosis.

- T-lymphocytes with self-antigens go through negative selection.

"Somatic recombination" refers to

- the selection of antigens the body will respond to.
- the somatic response to recombinant DNA.
- the shuffling of genetic fragments within each lymphocyte as it becomes immune competent.
- the rearrangement of cells in order to produce an immune response.

- the shuffling of genetic fragments within each lymphocyte as it becomes immune competent.

All of the following are names of antigen-presenting cells except

- macrophages.
- B-lymphocytes.
- T-lymphocytes.
- Langerhan's cells.

- T-lymphocytes.

Gene guns are used to shoot

- antigens with genes.
- genes that prevent hypersensitive reactions into lymphocytes.
- naked "DNA" viral vaccines into the skin.
- pathogens in the blood stream.

- naked "DNA" viral vaccines into the skin.

T-lymphocytes that bind to an antigen before co-stimulation takes place will cause

- these lymphocytes to become tolerant to that antigen.
- cause less tissue damage than when co-stimulation takes place first.
- these lymphocytes to die.
- cause plasma cells to produce autoantibodies.

- these lymphocytes to become tolerant to that antigen.

Without __________ there is no adaptive immune response.

- T-lymphocytes
- antibodies
- plasma cells
- B-lymphocytes

- T-lymphocytes

In the list below, which type of cell is involved in adaptive immunity?


- Macrophages
- B cells
- Natural killer cells
- Neutrophils

- B cells

Which of the following is not a sign of inflammation?


- Swelling
- Redness
- Pain
- Fever

- Fever

The first step in inflammation is:


- phagocyte mobilization.
- tissue injury.
- vasodilation.
- the release of pro-inflammatory signals.

- tissue injury.

Which of the following is not a property of interferons (IFNs)?


- IFNs stimulate B cells to produce antibodies.
- IFNs have antiviral activity.
- IFNs activate macrophages.
- IFNs have an anticancer role.

- IFNs stimulate B cells to produce antibodies.

Humoral immunity is provided by:


- complement proteins.
- T cells.
- interferons.
- antibodies.

- antibodies.

________ are substances that can trigger the adaptive defenses and provoke an immune response.


- Haptens
- Antibodies
- Interleukins
- Antigens

- Antigens

________ is the property of lymphocytes that prevents them from attacking the body's own cells.


- Immunological memory
- Self-tolerance
- Antigenicity
- Immunocompetence

- Self-tolerance

Self-reactive B cells are eliminated in the:


- bone marrow.
- lymph nodes.
- thymus.
- spleen.

- bone marrow.

Which of the following is a characteristic of a secondary immune response?


- A secondary immune response is slower than a primary immune response.
- A secondary immune response is started by naïve lymphocytes, while a primary immune response is initiated by memory cells.
- A secondary immune response lasts longer than a primary immune response.
- A secondary immune response does produce as many antibodies compared to a primary immune response.

- A secondary immune response lasts longer than a primary immune response.

A vaccination works to establish:


- natural passive immunity.
- natural active immunity.
- artificial passive immunity.
- artificial active immunity.

- artificial active immunity.

Which is correctly matched?


- B cells: suppress the immune response once the foreign antigen has been cleared from the body.
- Helper T cells: recognize virus-infected cells
- Cytotoxic T cells: activated by antigens bound to MHC I
- Regulatory T cells: make antibodies

- Cytotoxic T cells: activated by antigens bound to MHC I

MHC II proteins are found on:


- red blood cells.
- cytotoxic T cells.
- antigen-presenting cells.
- helper T cells.

- antigen-presenting cells.

What is the second step of T cell activation?


- Chemotaxis
- Antigen binding
- Anergy
- Co-stimulation

- Co-stimulation

Which of the following is mismatched?


- B cells: can be activated to produce antibodies
- Helper T cells: directly target and kill cancer cells
- Cytotoxic T cells: carry out cellular immune responses
- Regulatory T cells: release inhibitory cytokines to dampen the immune response

- Helper T cells: directly target and kill cancer cells

A graft that is transplanted from one person to a genetically identical individual (i.e., to an identical twin) is an example of a(n) __________.


- Allograft
- Autograft
- Isograft
- Xenograft

- Isograft

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set