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matter

anything that occupies space and has mass

element

pure substances that cannot be broken down by chemical means

trace elements

elements critical to health that make up less than 0.01% of body mass

compound

a substance containing 2 or more elements that are chemically combined in a fixed rate

atom

smallest partical of an element

proton

a subatomic partical with a unit of positive charge

electron

a subatomic partical with a unit of negitive charge

neutron

a subatomic partical with no charge

nucleus

in an atom the center core that contains protons and electrons and most of the mass

atomic number

the number of protons in an element

isotope

a different form of an element that has a different number a neutrons but the same number of protons

radioactive isotope

an isotope where the nucleus decays over time giving off raditation. they are useful in medcine and research

ionic bond

a bond where an atom transfers electrons to other atoms in order to have a complete outer energy level

ions

atoms that have a charge as a result of gaining or losing electrons

chemical reactions

breaking of ols and formation of new chemical bonds, the result in new substances

reactants

the starting material for a reaction

products

the end result of a reaction

4 atoms that make up 96% of all living things

oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen

atomic mass

the number of protons and neutrons in an atom

polar molecules

a molecule in which opposite ends have opposite electric charges

hydrogen bonds

a bond created by the weak attraction of a slightly positive hydrogen atom to a slightly negative portion of another atom

cohesion

the tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick to one another

adhesion

the type af attraction that occurs between unlike molecules

solution

a uniform mixture of two or more substances

solvent

substances in a solution the disolves the other substance

solute

the substance that is dissolved

aqurous solution

where water is the solvent

acid

compound that has more H+ ions than other ions and that mesures less than 7 on the ph scale

base

a compound that has more OH- ions than other ions ans that mesures more than 7 on the ph scale

ph scale

describes how acidic or basic a solution is

water

a covalent molecule that is slightly polar and that has unique properties

temperature moderation

a property of water that allows water to heat up and cool down slower because the hydrogen bonds have to break or form

homogenous

same throughout

mixture

has two or more substances that can be seperated (a supension)

ph steps

each ph step (ie 7to 8) is a ten fold increase (so 8 is ten times more basic than 7)

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