Chapter 20: The Lymphatic System and Lymphoid Organs and Tissues

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Pearson Human Anatomy & Physiology, Marieb/Hoehn

Aggregates of lymphoid nodules located in the wall of the ileum are

- ileal tonsils.
- Peyer''s patches.
- submucosal tonsils.
- Werner''s nodes.
- appendices.

- Peyer''s patches.

All lymph is eventually returned to circulation via the:


- aorta.
- pulmonary trunk.
- vena cava.
- subclavian veins.

- subclavian veins.

Areas of lymphocytes suspended by reticular fibers in the spleen are known as

- white pulp.
- lymph sinuses.
- red pulp.
- medullary cords.

- white pulp.

Choose the true statement about the thymus.


- The thymus contains reticular fibers.
- After puberty, the thymus begins to decrease in size.
- The thymus directly fights foreign antigens.
- B cells and T cells mature in the thymus.

- After puberty, the thymus begins to decrease in size.

Collections of lymphoid tissue (MALT) that guard mucosal surfaces include all the following EXCEPT

- Peyer''s patches.
- appendix nodules.
- lymphoid nodules in the wall of the bronchi.
- tonsils.
- thymus.

- thymus.

Except for the _____ and the spleen, the lymphoid organs are poorly developed at birth.


- thymus
- lymph nodes
- tonsils
- appendix

- tonsils

Excess tissue fluid in the brain drains into the

- lymphatics.
- CSF.
- ventricles.
- blood.

- CSF.

The hormones of the thymus are secreted by the

- thymic follicles.
- thymic corpuscles.
- T-lymphocytes.
- cortex.

- thymic corpuscles.

How are lymphatic collecting vessels different from veins?


- Lymphatic collecting vessels have endothelial flap valves, but veins do not.
- Lymphatic collecting vessels do not form branches; veins do form branches.
- Lymphatic collecting vessels have fewer tunics than veins.
- Lymphatic collecting vessels have thicker walls than do veins.

- Lymphatic collecting vessels have endothelial flap valves, but veins do not.

In addition to lymphoid function, this organ holds a reservoir of platelets.

- Left lymphatic duct
- Tonsil
- Thymus
- Spleen
- Cisterna chyli

- Spleen

Lacteals are specialized

- lymph nodes in the liver.
- lymphatics in the intestine submucosa.
- lymph nodes in the digestive system.
- lymphatics in the respiratory tract.

- lymphatics in the intestine submucosa.

Large lymph capillaries spanned by criss-crossing reticular fibers are known as

- trabeculae.
- lymph follicles.
- medullary cords.
- lymph sinuses.

- lymph sinuses.

The lymph from all but the right side of the head and the right arm and right thorax is drained by the

- thoracic duct.
- cisterna chyli.
- right lymphatic duct.
- lacteals.

- thoracic duct.

Lymphangitis presents itself as

- tender lymph nodes that are filled with pus.
- red lines under the skin that are sensitive to touch.
- enlarged tender tonsils.
- severe localized edema.

- red lines under the skin that are sensitive to touch.

The lymphatic structure that arises anterior to the first two lumbar vertebrae is known as the

- right thoracic duct.
- lacteals.
- cisterna chyli.
- thoracic duct.

- cisterna chyli.

The lymphedema condition, caused by tropical parasitic worms, is

- Hodgkin''s disease.
- lymphoma.
- tonsillitis.
- elephantiasis.
- mononucleosis.

- elephantiasis.

The lymphoid organs, located in the throat, that defend against invading bacteria coming in through the mouth and nose are

- Spleen
- Thymus
- Tonsils
- MALT
- Peyer''s patches

- Tonsils

The main role of the tonsils is to:


- help B cells mature.
- filter lymph.
- gather and remove pathogens entering through the pharynx.
- help T cells mature.

- gather and remove pathogens entering through the pharynx.

A major function of the lymphatic system is

- return of tissue fluid to the cardiovascular system.
- circulation of blood.
- gas distribution.
- distribution of nutrients.

- return of tissue fluid to the cardiovascular system.

People suffering from a throat infection often complain of ""swollen glands."" What is the actual problem?

- The Peyer''s patches are infected.
- Some of the lymph nodes in the throat are full of bacteria.
- Lymphatic blockage
- The lingual tonsil is full of bacteria or virus.
- The tubal tonsils are infected.

- Some of the lymph nodes in the throat are full of bacteria.

Reed-Sternberg cells are characteristic of

- lymphoma.
- mononucleosis.
- Hodgkin's disease.
- elephantiasis.

- Hodgkin's disease.

A sentinel node is the first lymph node

- that receives lymph drainage from a body area suspected of cancer.
- that contains mature lymphocytes.
- to encounter an antigen.
- to produce an antibody in an immune reaction.

- that receives lymph drainage from a body area suspected of cancer.

The structural framework of lymphoid tissue is offered by

- squamous epithelium.
- adipose.
- reticular connective tissue.
- dense, irregular connective tissue.
- dense, regular connective tissue.

- reticular connective tissue.

This structure attached to the cecum is in an ideal place to destroy bacteria before it migrates into the large intestine.

- thymus
- appendix
- tubal tonsil
- spleen
- palatine tonsil

- appendix

Thymic corpuscles are composed of

- maturing T-lymphocytes.
- B-lymphocytes.
- keratinized epithelial cells.
- plasma cells.

- keratinized epithelial cells.

To assist with lymph return,

- lymph vessels rely on pressure generated by their muscular walls.
- lymph vessels rely exclusively on the pull of gravity.
- lymph vessels possess valves, like veins, to prevent backflow.
- lymph vessels rely on pressure generated by the heart.
- lymph vessels possess mini-pumps that drive lymph forward.

- lymph vessels possess valves, like veins, to prevent backflow.

What lymphatic structure absorbs excess tissue fluid?

- collecting vessel
- trunk
- capillary
- cisterna chyli
- duct

- capillary

What lymphatic structure absorbs lipids in the intestine?

- lacteal
- duct
- vein
- trunk
- collecting vessel

- lacteal

What lymphatic structure forms from the merging of the intestinal and lumbar trunks?

- right lymphatic duct
- cisterna chyli
- subclavian duct
- jugular trunk
- thoracic duct

- cisterna chyli

What lymphatic structures trap bacteria in the posterior oral mucosa?

- submandibular tonsils
- pharyngeal tonsils
- lingual tonsils
- palatine tonsils
- tubal tonsils

- palatine tonsils

What part of the lymphatic system is most closely associated with capillary beds?


- Lymphatic collecting vessels
- Lymph ducts
- Lymph nodes
- Lymphatic trunks

- Lymphatic collecting vessels

When B-lymphocytes are dividing rapidly the _____ of the lymphoid tissue enlarges.

- reticular fibers
- lymphoid nodules
- germinal centers
- diffused lymphoid tissue

- germinal centers

Where are plasma cells found in the node?

- in the cortex
- in the medullary cords
- in the lymph sinuses
- in the capsule

- in the medullary cords

Where is the site of erythrocyte production in the fetus?

- spleen
- bone marrow
- thymus
- liver

- spleen

Which area does NOT contain a large collection of lymph nodes?

- The brachial area
- The inguinal area
- The lumbar area
- The axillary area
- The neck

- The brachial area

Which of the following are NOT found in a lymph node?

- Follicles/nodules
- Eosinophils
- T-lymphocytes
- Macrophages
- B-lymphocytes

- Eosinophils

Which of the following best describes the arrangement of lymphatic vessels?

- A one-way system of vessels beginning with blind-ended lymphatic capillaries
- A system that collects fluid from arteries and veins and takes it into lymphatic arteries to be pumped back to the blood circulation
- A system of large vessels designed to fill quickly with lymph as the heart pushes blood through the coronary sinus
- A system that pumps lymph through lymphatic ventricles to the lymphatic capillaries and through lymph veins back to the atria
- A system that carries lymph through lymphatic arteries, lymphatic capillaries, and lymphatic veins

- A one-way system of vessels beginning with blind-ended lymphatic capillaries

Which of the following cells would not be found in a germinal center in a lymph node?

- B lymphocytes
- monocytes
- plasma cells
- follicular dendrite cells

- monocytes

Which of the following does not contribute to lymph transport?

- being located adjacent to large veins
- pressure changes in the thoracic cavity
- contraction of skeletal muscles
- mini-valves in the lymphatic vessels

- being located adjacent to large veins

Which of the following features is not common to both lymphatic collecting ducts and veins?

- the presence of valves
- a wall made of three layers
- Each contain chyle.
- Anatomical distributions of each vary between individuals.

- Each contain chyle.

Which of the following is found lining the lymphatic sinuses of the lymph nodes?

- T cells
- B cells
- Dendritic cells
- Macrophages
- Lymphocytes

- Macrophages

Which of the following is located in the spleen''s white pulp regions?

- Macrophages
- Blood vessels
- Monocytes
- Capsules
- Lymphocytes

- Lymphocytes

Which of the following is not a characteristic of lymph nodes?


- Lymph nodes have a capsule.
- Lymph nodes produce lymph.
- Lymph nodes filter lymph.
- Lymph nodes activate the immune system.

- Lymph nodes produce lymph.

Which of the following is not a function of lymphatic vessels?


- The return of leaked proteins to the blood
- Transportation of absorbed fat from the intestines to the blood
- Delivery of nutrients to tissues
- The return of tissue fluid to the bloodstream

- Delivery of nutrients to tissues

Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic vessels?

- carrying fat from the intestine to the blood
- returning leaked proteins to the blood stream
- providing a maturation site for lymphocytes
- returning excess fluid to the bloodstream

- providing a maturation site for lymphocytes

Which of the following is NOT a lymphatic organ?

- Spleen
- Thymus
- Peyer''s patches
- Macrophage
- MALT

- Macrophage

Which of the following is not a part of the mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)?


- The tonsils
- The appendix
- The spleen
- Peyer's patches

- The spleen

Which of the following is not a role of the spleen?


- Break down erythrocytes
- Serve as a site of T cell maturation
- Serve as an immune system surveillance organ
- Store platelets

- Serve as a site of T cell maturation

Which of the following is the major lymphoid organ that ""trains"" T-lymphocytes to become immunocompetent?

- Thymus
- Tonsils
- Spleen
- MALT
- Peyer''s patches

- Thymus

Which of the following lists the correct order of lymph flow through the lymph node?


- Afferent vessel, subcapsular sinus, medulla, efferent vessel
- Subcapsular sinus, efferent vessel, afferent vessel, medulla
- Efferent vessel, subcapsular sinus, medulla, afferent vessel
- Medulla, efferent vessel, afferent vessel, subcapsular sinus

- Afferent vessel, subcapsular sinus, medulla, efferent vessel

Which of the following make up the principle lymphoid organs in the body?

- Spleen
- Lymph nodes
- Tonsils
- Peyer''s patches
- MALT

- Lymph nodes

Which of the following statements about the spleen is false?

- The spleen's capsule is very thin and can be ruptured easily by a direct blow.
- If the spleen is removed, the liver will take over its function.
- It is best to perform a splenectomy if the spleen is damaged in a car accident.
- In children under the age of 12 years old, the spleen will regenerate if a small piece is left in the body.

- It is best to perform a splenectomy if the spleen is damaged in a car accident.

Which of the following statements is true when comparing large lymphatic vessels to larger veins of the circulatory system?

- Larger lymphatic vessels have only one layer and have no valves.
- Larger lymphatic vessels have only two layers, instead of three, as do veins, but have more valves than veins.
- Larger lymphatic vessels have the same three layers, but have no valves.
- Larger lymphatic vessels have thicker layers and no valves.
- Large lymphatic vessels have the same three layers, but are thinner and have more valves.

- Large lymphatic vessels have the same three layers, but are thinner and have more valves.

Which of the following vessels transport fluid that leaks from the vascular system back into the blood?

- veins
- lymphatics
- sinusoids
- capillaries

- lymphatics

Which sequence best describes the flow of lymph through the lymphatic system?

- Ducts - trunks - capillaries - vessels
- Ducts - vessels - trunks - capillaries
- Capillaries - trunks - vessels - ducts
- Capillaries - vessels - trunks - ducts
- Trunks - capillaries - vessels - ducts

- Capillaries - vessels - trunks - ducts

Which statement below describes the lymphatic system''s role in relation to the cardiovascular system?

- It is the primary source for regulation of blood pressure.
- It is the major source for distribution of all hormones.
- It serves as a pathway for distribution of neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
- It helps regulate cardiac activity.
- It maintains blood volume and hence, pressure.

- It maintains blood volume and hence, pressure.

Which statement is true of the thoracic duct?

- It forms from the merging of collecting vessels from the left upper limb and neck
- It only drains lymph from the arms.
- It forms from the merging of collecting vessels on the right side of the body.
- It drains the lymph from the entire left side of the body and the right abdomen and leg.
- It drains the lymph from the right head, neck shoulder, arm, and upper right chest.

- It drains the lymph from the entire left side of the body and the right abdomen and leg.

Which statement is true regarding lymph nodes?

- There are over 10,000 located throughout the body.
- They contain dense collections of all five-leukocyte types.
- They may reach the size of a golf ball.
- They have fewer efferent than afferent (incoming) vessels.
- There is a dense collection located in the feet and hands.

- They have fewer efferent than afferent (incoming) vessels.

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