IST 302 Midterm

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CH1-CH6 Question Pool

A research report showed that the U.S. spends the equivalent of ____ percent of the nation's gross domestic product on projects every year.

25%

Because a project requires resources, often from various areas, many projects cross ____ or other boundaries to achieve their unique purposes.

departmental

The limitations of scope, time, and cost goals are sometimes referred to as the ____.

triple constraint

In the example of the project of building a house, the project sponsors would be the potential ____.

new homeowners

Project ____ management involves defining and managing all the work required to complete the project successfully.

scope

Project ____ management is concerned with making effective use of the people involved with the project.

human resource

Project ____ management is an overarching function that affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas.

integration

According to the Standish group, which of the following factors contributes most to the success of information technology projects?

executive support

"All project leaders use a shared road map, focusing on key business aspects of their projects while integrating goals across all parts of the organization" describes the ____ best practice for project delivery.

Develop a streamlined project delivery process

A ____ can have many different job descriptions, which can vary tremendously based on the organization and the project.

project manager

Achieving high performance on projects requires ____, otherwise called human relations skills.

soft skills

A(n) ____ often deals with the day-to-day details of meeting specific goals.

manager

Most people agree that the modern concept of project management began with the ____.

Manhattan Project

In ____, Henry Gantt developed the famous Gantt chart as a tool for scheduling work in factories.

1917

During the Cold War years of the 1950s and '60s, ____ continued to be key in refining several project management techniques.

the military

By the ____, the U.S. military and its civilian suppliers developed software to assist in managing large projects.

1970s

A PMO, or Project ____ Office, is an organizational group responsible for coordinating the project management function throughout an organization.

Management

PMI provides certification as a Project Management ____ (PMP), someone who has documented sufficient project experience and education, agreed to follow the PMI code of professional conduct, and demonstrated knowledge of the field of project management by passing a comprehensive examination.

Professional

The Project Management ____, a Web site for people involved in project management, provides an alphabetical directory of more than 300 project management software solutions.

Center

____ tools, sometimes referred to as enterprise project management software, provide robust capabilities to handle very large projects.

High-end

A research report showed that the U.S. spends ____ on projects every year.

$2.3 trillion

Many organizations assert that using project management provides advantages, such as ____.

lower costs

The project ____ usually provides the direction and funding for the project.

sponsor

____ are the people involved in or affected by project activities and include the project sponsor, project team, support staff, customers, users, suppliers, and even opponents of the project.

stakeholders

In the example of the project of building a house, the ____ would normally be the general contractor responsible for building the house.

project manager

Project ____ management ensures that the project will satisfy the stated or implied needs for which it was undertaken.

quality

Project ____ management involves generating, collecting, disseminating, and storing project information.

communications

What works on one project may not work on another, so it is essential for project managers to continue to develop their knowledge and ____ in managing projects.

skills

According to the Standish Group study describing what factors contribute most to the success of information technology projects, ____ percent of successful projects are led by experienced project managers.

97%

____ project management software integrates information from multiple projects to show the status of active, approved, and future projects across an entire organization.

Enterprise

In an interview with two chief information officers (CIOs), both men agreed that the most important project management skills seem to depend on ____.

the uniqueness of the project and the people involved

A(n) ____ focuses on long-term goals and big-picture objectives, while inspiring people to reach those goals.

leader

Some people say that ____ achieve the vision of a project.

managers

The Manhattan Project cost almost $2 billion in ____.

1946

A Gantt chart is a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in a ____ format.

calendar

The longest path through a network diagram that determines the earliest completion of a project is called the ____ path.

critical

____ was an early project management software product that helped managers analyze complex schedules for designing aircraft.

Artemis

Many organizations are now using enterprise or project ____ management software to help manage projects.

portfolio

Just as passing the CPA exam is a standard for accountants, passing the ____ exam is becoming a standard for project managers.

PMP

____ tools are often recommended for small projects and single users.

low-end

The term "systems approach" emerged in the ____.

1950s

The ____ focuses on different groups' roles and responsibilities in order to meet the goals and policies set by top management.

structural frame

The ____ assumes that organizations are coalitions composed of varied individuals and interest groups.

political frame

In a ____, program managers report to the CEO.

project organizational structure

Project managers have the most authority in a pure ____.

project organizational structure

In a ____ matrix organizational structure, the project manager controls the project budget and has moderate to high authority.

strong

The ____ characteristic of organizational culture describes the degree to which management's decisions take into account the effect of outcomes on people within the organization.

people focus

Many companies have realized that information technology is integral to their business and have created a vice president or equivalent-level position for the head of information technology, often called the ____.

CIO

In early phases of a project life cycle, resource needs are usually ____ and the level of uncertainty is ____.

lowest; highest

In the ____ phase, the project team creates more detailed project plans, a more accurate cost estimate, and a more thorough WBS.

development

The ____ model assumes that requirements will remain stable after they are defined.

waterfall life cycle

The ____ model requires heavy user involvement, and developers use a model to generate functional requirements and physical design specifications simultaneously.

RAD life cycle

Most trade schools, colleges, and universities did not start offering degrees in computer technology, computer science, management information systems, or other information technology areas until the ____.

1970s

____ describes a holistic view of carrying out projects within the context of the organization.

Systems thinking

____ is a problem-solving approach that requires defining the scope of the system, dividing it into its components, and then identifying and evaluating its problems, opportunities, constraints, and needs.

Systems analysis

The ____ focuses on producing harmony between the needs of the organization and the needs of the people.

human resources frame

A ____ is the hierarchy most people think of when picturing an organizational chart.

functional organizational structure

In a ____, personnel often report to both a functional manager and one or more project managers.

matrix organizational structure

Project managers have the least amount of authority in a pure ____.

functional organizational structure

____ is a set of shared assumptions, values, and behaviors that characterize the functioning of an organization.

organizational culture

____ refers to the degree to which the organization monitors and responds to changes in the external environment.

open-systems focus

A ____ is a collection of project phases.

project life cycle

A preliminary or rough cost estimate is developed in the ____ phase, and an overview of the work involved is created.

concept

In the ____ phase, the project team creates a definitive or very accurate cost estimate, delivers the required work, and provides performance reports to stakeholders.

implementation

The ____ model provides for progressive development of operational software, with each release providing added capabilities.

incremental build life cycle

The ____ model uses an approach in which developers work with an evolving prototype.

RAD life cycle

____ include defining and authorizing a project or project phase.

initiating processes

Examples of ____ include acquiring and developing the project team, performing quality assurance, distributing information, managing stakeholder expectations, and conducting procurements.

executing processes

Administrative activities are often involved in ____, such as archiving project files, closing out contracts, documenting lessons learned, and receiving formal acceptance of the delivered work as part of the phase or project.

closing processes

____ is crucial in information technology projects because once a project team implements a new system, it takes a considerable amount of effort to change the system.

planning

The project scope management knowledge area maps to the ____ process group through the activities of scope verification and scope control.

monitoring and controlling

____ is a planning process falling under the Project Integration Management knowledge area.

develop project management plan

____ is a monitoring and controlling process.

integrated change control

The project communications management knowledge area maps to the ____ process group through the activity of information distribution.

executing

The project procurement management knowledge area maps to the ____ process group through the activities conducting procurements.

executing

____ should serve as the foundation for deciding which projects to pursue.

strategic planning

A ____ is a document that includes details related to the identified project stakeholders.

stakeholder register

A ____ is a meeting held at the beginning of a project so that stakeholders can meet each other, review the goals of the project, and discuss future plans.

kick-off meeting

It is good practice to focus on the ____ of meetings.

results

The ____ provides a basis for creating the project schedule and performing earned value management for measuring and forecasting project performance.

WBS

The ____ process involves gaining stakeholder and customer acceptance of the final products and services and bringing the project, or project phase, to an orderly end.

closing

Projects involve ____ project management process groups.

five

____ include devising and maintaining a workable scheme to ensure that the project addresses the organization's needs.

planning processes

A common ____ is reporting performance, where project stakeholders can identify any necessary changes that may be required to keep the project on track.

monitoring and controlling process

During ____ processes for a new project, the organization recognizes that a new project exists, and completes a project charter as part of this recognition.

initiating

The project integration management knowledge area maps to the ____ process group through the activities of developing project charters.

initiating

The project time management knowledge area maps to the ____ process group through the activity of schedule control.

monitoring and controlling

____ is a planning process falling under the Project Scope Management knowledge area.

develop project management plan

The project cost management knowledge area maps to the ____ process group through the activities of estimating costs and budget determination.

planning

The project procurement management knowledge area maps to the ____ process group through the activity of administering procurements.

monitoring and controlling

____ is an iterative software development process that focuses on team productivity and delivers software best practices to all team members.

RUP

An organization may initiate information technology projects for several reasons, but the most important reason is to support ____.

business objectives

A ____ is an approach to help increase the support of stakeholders throughout the project.

stakeholder management strategy

The ____ is often held after the business case and project charter are completed, but it could be held sooner, as needed.

kick-off meeting

Quality metrics are an output of project ____.

quality management

____ the project involves taking the actions necessary to ensure that activities in the project plan are completed.

executing

____ involves working with stakeholders to create the document that formally authorizes a project.

developing the project charter

The outputs of ____ include change request status updates, project management plan updates, and project document updates.

monitoring and controlling the project work

The ____ step in the planning process is to tie the information technology strategic plan to the organization's overall strategic plan.

first

In the ____ stage, organizations tie information technology strategy to mission and vision of organization and identify key business areas.

Information Technology Strategy Planning

In the ____ stage of selecting information technology projects, organizations select information technology projects.

Resource Allocation

Author ____, who developed the concept of the strategic value of competitive advantage, has written several books and articles on strategic planning and competition.

Michael Porter

One method for selecting projects based on ____ is to determine whether they first meet three important criteria: need, funding, and will.

broad organizational needs

____ analysis is a method of calculating the expected net monetary gain or loss from a project by discounting all expected future cash inflows and outflows to the present point in time.

net present value

In the mathematical formula for determining the NPV, the variable n is ____.

the last year of the cash flow

You can determine a project's ____ by finding what discount rate results in an NPV of zero for the project.

internal rate of return (IRR)

A(n) ____ is a methodology that converts an organization's value drivers, such as customer service, innovation, operational efficiency, and financial performance, to a series of defined metrics.

balanced scorecard

A(n) ____ is a document that describes the products or services to be created by the project team.

statement of work

A(n) ____ is a document used to coordinate all project planning documents and help guide a project's execution and control.

project management plan

The ____ section of the project management plan describes how to monitor project progress and handle changes.

project controls

The project schedule information section of the project management plan might include ____.

a detailed schedule

Most systems analysts begin their careers as ____.

programmers

____ should result in improvements in project performance.

corrective actions

Which of the following is an important input to the integrated change control process?

Work performance information

A(n) ____ is a formal group of people responsible for approving or rejecting changes to a project.

CCB

____ tools track the execution of business process flows and expose how the state of supporting IT systems and resources is impacting end-to-end business process performance in real time.

BSM

There are ____ main processes involved in project integration management.

six

____ involves coordinating all planning efforts to create a consistent, coherent document.

developing the project management plan

Many people are familiar with SWOT analysis—analyzing Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats—which is used to aid in ____.

strategic planning

In the ____ information technology planning stage, the analysis outlines business processes that are central to achieving strategic goals and helps determine which ones could most benefit from information technology.

Business Area Analysis

In the ____ stage of selecting information technology projects, organizations define project scope, benefits, and constraints.

Project Planning

Research shows that ____ is the number one reason cited for why organizations invest in information technology projects.

supporting explicit business objectives

Projects that address ____ are much more likely to be successful because they will be important to the organization.

broad organizational needs

____ are new requirements imposed by management, government, or some external influence.

directives

The first step in determining the NPV is to ____.

determine the estimated costs and benefits for the life of the project and the products it produces

The ____ is the minimum acceptable rate of return on an investment.

required rate of return

In a weighted scoring model, the sum of all of the criteria's weights must total ____ percent.

100

A(n) ____ is a document that formally recognizes the existence of a project and provides direction on the project's objectives and management.

project charter

____ support contributes the most to successful information technology projects.

stakeholder

The ____ section of the project plan should describe the major project functions and activities and identify those individuals who are responsible for them.

project responsibilities

The ____ section of the project management plan describes specific methodologies a project might use and explains how to document information.

technical processes

The majority of time on a project is usually spent on ____, as is most of the project's budget.

execution

On large projects, many project managers say that ____ percent of the job is communicating and managing changes.

90%

____ provide information on how project execution is going.

performance reports

A(n) ____ is a formal, documented process that describes when and how official project documents may be changed.

change control system

____ ensures that the descriptions of the project's products are correct and complete.

configuration management

There are ____ main processes involved in project scope management.

five

____ involves reviewing the project charter, requirements documents, and organizational process assets to create a scope statement, adding more information as requirements are developed and change requests are approved.

defining scope

The main outputs of ____ are accepted deliverables and change requests.

a. planning scope
b. controlling scope
c. defining scope
d. verifying scope

Good ____ is very important to project success because it helps improve the accuracy of time, cost, and resource estimates, it defines a baseline for performance measurement and project control, and it aids in communicating clear work responsibilities.

scope verification

Of the following constraints, it is most difficult to describe, agree upon, and meet the ____ goal of many projects.

scope

In the WBS, the name of the entire project is the top box, called Level ____.

1

Many people confuse tasks on a WBS with ____.

specifications

The ____ should list and describe all of the deliverables required for the project.

WBS

The ____ approach involves refining the work into greater and greater levels of detail.

top-down

Project managers often use the ____ approach for projects that represent entirely new systems or approaches to doing a job, or to help create buy-in and synergy with a project team.

bottom-up

____ involves formal acceptance of the completed project scope by the stakeholders.

scope verification

____ is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them.

use case modeling

The term ____ describes a product produced as part of a project.

deliverable

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