A research report showed that the U.S. spends the equivalent of ____ percent of the nation's gross domestic product on projects every year.
Because a project requires resources, often from various areas, many projects cross ____ or other boundaries to achieve their unique purposes.
The limitations of scope, time, and cost goals are sometimes referred to as the ____.
In the example of the project of building a house, the project sponsors would be the potential ____.
Project ____ management involves defining and managing all the work required to complete the project successfully.
Project ____ management is concerned with making effective use of the people involved with the project.
Project ____ management is an overarching function that affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas.
According to the Standish group, which of the following factors contributes most to the success of information technology projects?
"All project leaders use a shared road map, focusing on key business aspects of their projects while integrating goals across all parts of the organization" describes the ____ best practice for project delivery.
Develop a streamlined project delivery process
A ____ can have many different job descriptions, which can vary tremendously based on the organization and the project.
Achieving high performance on projects requires ____, otherwise called human relations skills.
A(n) ____ often deals with the day-to-day details of meeting specific goals.
Most people agree that the modern concept of project management began with the ____.
In ____, Henry Gantt developed the famous Gantt chart as a tool for scheduling work in factories.
During the Cold War years of the 1950s and '60s, ____ continued to be key in refining several project management techniques.
By the ____, the U.S. military and its civilian suppliers developed software to assist in managing large projects.
A PMO, or Project ____ Office, is an organizational group responsible for coordinating the project management function throughout an organization.
PMI provides certification as a Project Management ____ (PMP), someone who has documented sufficient project experience and education, agreed to follow the PMI code of professional conduct, and demonstrated knowledge of the field of project management by passing a comprehensive examination.
The Project Management ____, a Web site for people involved in project management, provides an alphabetical directory of more than 300 project management software solutions.
____ tools, sometimes referred to as enterprise project management software, provide robust capabilities to handle very large projects.
A research report showed that the U.S. spends ____ on projects every year.
Many organizations assert that using project management provides advantages, such as ____.
The project ____ usually provides the direction and funding for the project.
____ are the people involved in or affected by project activities and include the project sponsor, project team, support staff, customers, users, suppliers, and even opponents of the project.
In the example of the project of building a house, the ____ would normally be the general contractor responsible for building the house.
Project ____ management ensures that the project will satisfy the stated or implied needs for which it was undertaken.
Project ____ management involves generating, collecting, disseminating, and storing project information.
What works on one project may not work on another, so it is essential for project managers to continue to develop their knowledge and ____ in managing projects.
According to the Standish Group study describing what factors contribute most to the success of information technology projects, ____ percent of successful projects are led by experienced project managers.
____ project management software integrates information from multiple projects to show the status of active, approved, and future projects across an entire organization.
In an interview with two chief information officers (CIOs), both men agreed that the most important project management skills seem to depend on ____.
the uniqueness of the project and the people involved
A(n) ____ focuses on long-term goals and big-picture objectives, while inspiring people to reach those goals.
Some people say that ____ achieve the vision of a project.
The Manhattan Project cost almost $2 billion in ____.
A Gantt chart is a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in a ____ format.
The longest path through a network diagram that determines the earliest completion of a project is called the ____ path.
____ was an early project management software product that helped managers analyze complex schedules for designing aircraft.
Many organizations are now using enterprise or project ____ management software to help manage projects.
Just as passing the CPA exam is a standard for accountants, passing the ____ exam is becoming a standard for project managers.
____ tools are often recommended for small projects and single users.
The term "systems approach" emerged in the ____.
The ____ focuses on different groups' roles and responsibilities in order to meet the goals and policies set by top management.
The ____ assumes that organizations are coalitions composed of varied individuals and interest groups.
In a ____, program managers report to the CEO.
project organizational structure
Project managers have the most authority in a pure ____.
project organizational structure
In a ____ matrix organizational structure, the project manager controls the project budget and has moderate to high authority.
The ____ characteristic of organizational culture describes the degree to which management's decisions take into account the effect of outcomes on people within the organization.
Many companies have realized that information technology is integral to their business and have created a vice president or equivalent-level position for the head of information technology, often called the ____.
In early phases of a project life cycle, resource needs are usually ____ and the level of uncertainty is ____.
In the ____ phase, the project team creates more detailed project plans, a more accurate cost estimate, and a more thorough WBS.
The ____ model assumes that requirements will remain stable after they are defined.
waterfall life cycle
The ____ model requires heavy user involvement, and developers use a model to generate functional requirements and physical design specifications simultaneously.
RAD life cycle
Most trade schools, colleges, and universities did not start offering degrees in computer technology, computer science, management information systems, or other information technology areas until the ____.
____ describes a holistic view of carrying out projects within the context of the organization.
____ is a problem-solving approach that requires defining the scope of the system, dividing it into its components, and then identifying and evaluating its problems, opportunities, constraints, and needs.
The ____ focuses on producing harmony between the needs of the organization and the needs of the people.
human resources frame
A ____ is the hierarchy most people think of when picturing an organizational chart.
functional organizational structure
In a ____, personnel often report to both a functional manager and one or more project managers.
matrix organizational structure
Project managers have the least amount of authority in a pure ____.
functional organizational structure
____ is a set of shared assumptions, values, and behaviors that characterize the functioning of an organization.
____ refers to the degree to which the organization monitors and responds to changes in the external environment.
A ____ is a collection of project phases.
project life cycle
A preliminary or rough cost estimate is developed in the ____ phase, and an overview of the work involved is created.
In the ____ phase, the project team creates a definitive or very accurate cost estimate, delivers the required work, and provides performance reports to stakeholders.
The ____ model provides for progressive development of operational software, with each release providing added capabilities.
incremental build life cycle
The ____ model uses an approach in which developers work with an evolving prototype.
RAD life cycle
____ include defining and authorizing a project or project phase.
Examples of ____ include acquiring and developing the project team, performing quality assurance, distributing information, managing stakeholder expectations, and conducting procurements.
Administrative activities are often involved in ____, such as archiving project files, closing out contracts, documenting lessons learned, and receiving formal acceptance of the delivered work as part of the phase or project.
____ is crucial in information technology projects because once a project team implements a new system, it takes a considerable amount of effort to change the system.
The project scope management knowledge area maps to the ____ process group through the activities of scope verification and scope control.
monitoring and controlling
____ is a planning process falling under the Project Integration Management knowledge area.
develop project management plan
____ is a monitoring and controlling process.
integrated change control
The project communications management knowledge area maps to the ____ process group through the activity of information distribution.
The project procurement management knowledge area maps to the ____ process group through the activities conducting procurements.
____ should serve as the foundation for deciding which projects to pursue.
A ____ is a document that includes details related to the identified project stakeholders.
A ____ is a meeting held at the beginning of a project so that stakeholders can meet each other, review the goals of the project, and discuss future plans.
It is good practice to focus on the ____ of meetings.
The ____ provides a basis for creating the project schedule and performing earned value management for measuring and forecasting project performance.
The ____ process involves gaining stakeholder and customer acceptance of the final products and services and bringing the project, or project phase, to an orderly end.
Projects involve ____ project management process groups.
____ include devising and maintaining a workable scheme to ensure that the project addresses the organization's needs.
A common ____ is reporting performance, where project stakeholders can identify any necessary changes that may be required to keep the project on track.
monitoring and controlling process
During ____ processes for a new project, the organization recognizes that a new project exists, and completes a project charter as part of this recognition.
The project integration management knowledge area maps to the ____ process group through the activities of developing project charters.
The project time management knowledge area maps to the ____ process group through the activity of schedule control.
monitoring and controlling
____ is a planning process falling under the Project Scope Management knowledge area.
develop project management plan
The project cost management knowledge area maps to the ____ process group through the activities of estimating costs and budget determination.
The project procurement management knowledge area maps to the ____ process group through the activity of administering procurements.
monitoring and controlling
____ is an iterative software development process that focuses on team productivity and delivers software best practices to all team members.
An organization may initiate information technology projects for several reasons, but the most important reason is to support ____.
A ____ is an approach to help increase the support of stakeholders throughout the project.
stakeholder management strategy
The ____ is often held after the business case and project charter are completed, but it could be held sooner, as needed.
Quality metrics are an output of project ____.
____ the project involves taking the actions necessary to ensure that activities in the project plan are completed.
____ involves working with stakeholders to create the document that formally authorizes a project.
developing the project charter
The outputs of ____ include change request status updates, project management plan updates, and project document updates.
monitoring and controlling the project work
The ____ step in the planning process is to tie the information technology strategic plan to the organization's overall strategic plan.
In the ____ stage, organizations tie information technology strategy to mission and vision of organization and identify key business areas.
Information Technology Strategy Planning
In the ____ stage of selecting information technology projects, organizations select information technology projects.
Author ____, who developed the concept of the strategic value of competitive advantage, has written several books and articles on strategic planning and competition.
One method for selecting projects based on ____ is to determine whether they first meet three important criteria: need, funding, and will.
broad organizational needs
____ analysis is a method of calculating the expected net monetary gain or loss from a project by discounting all expected future cash inflows and outflows to the present point in time.
net present value
In the mathematical formula for determining the NPV, the variable n is ____.
the last year of the cash flow
You can determine a project's ____ by finding what discount rate results in an NPV of zero for the project.
internal rate of return (IRR)
A(n) ____ is a methodology that converts an organization's value drivers, such as customer service, innovation, operational efficiency, and financial performance, to a series of defined metrics.
A(n) ____ is a document that describes the products or services to be created by the project team.
statement of work
A(n) ____ is a document used to coordinate all project planning documents and help guide a project's execution and control.
project management plan
The ____ section of the project management plan describes how to monitor project progress and handle changes.
The project schedule information section of the project management plan might include ____.
a detailed schedule
Most systems analysts begin their careers as ____.
____ should result in improvements in project performance.
Which of the following is an important input to the integrated change control process?
Work performance information
A(n) ____ is a formal group of people responsible for approving or rejecting changes to a project.
____ tools track the execution of business process flows and expose how the state of supporting IT systems and resources is impacting end-to-end business process performance in real time.
There are ____ main processes involved in project integration management.
____ involves coordinating all planning efforts to create a consistent, coherent document.
developing the project management plan
Many people are familiar with SWOT analysis—analyzing Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats—which is used to aid in ____.
In the ____ information technology planning stage, the analysis outlines business processes that are central to achieving strategic goals and helps determine which ones could most benefit from information technology.
Business Area Analysis
In the ____ stage of selecting information technology projects, organizations define project scope, benefits, and constraints.
Research shows that ____ is the number one reason cited for why organizations invest in information technology projects.
supporting explicit business objectives
Projects that address ____ are much more likely to be successful because they will be important to the organization.
broad organizational needs
____ are new requirements imposed by management, government, or some external influence.
The first step in determining the NPV is to ____.
determine the estimated costs and benefits for the life of the project and the products it produces
The ____ is the minimum acceptable rate of return on an investment.
required rate of return
In a weighted scoring model, the sum of all of the criteria's weights must total ____ percent.
A(n) ____ is a document that formally recognizes the existence of a project and provides direction on the project's objectives and management.
____ support contributes the most to successful information technology projects.
The ____ section of the project plan should describe the major project functions and activities and identify those individuals who are responsible for them.
The ____ section of the project management plan describes specific methodologies a project might use and explains how to document information.
The majority of time on a project is usually spent on ____, as is most of the project's budget.
On large projects, many project managers say that ____ percent of the job is communicating and managing changes.
____ provide information on how project execution is going.
A(n) ____ is a formal, documented process that describes when and how official project documents may be changed.
change control system
____ ensures that the descriptions of the project's products are correct and complete.
There are ____ main processes involved in project scope management.
____ involves reviewing the project charter, requirements documents, and organizational process assets to create a scope statement, adding more information as requirements are developed and change requests are approved.
The main outputs of ____ are accepted deliverables and change requests.
a. planning scope
b. controlling scope
c. defining scope
d. verifying scope
Good ____ is very important to project success because it helps improve the accuracy of time, cost, and resource estimates, it defines a baseline for performance measurement and project control, and it aids in communicating clear work responsibilities.
Of the following constraints, it is most difficult to describe, agree upon, and meet the ____ goal of many projects.
In the WBS, the name of the entire project is the top box, called Level ____.
Many people confuse tasks on a WBS with ____.
The ____ should list and describe all of the deliverables required for the project.
The ____ approach involves refining the work into greater and greater levels of detail.
Project managers often use the ____ approach for projects that represent entirely new systems or approaches to doing a job, or to help create buy-in and synergy with a project team.
____ involves formal acceptance of the completed project scope by the stakeholders.
____ is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them.
use case modeling
The term ____ describes a product produced as part of a project.
____ involves defining and documenting the features and functions of the products produced during the project as well as the processes used for creating them.
____ involves formalizing acceptance of the project deliverables and during this phase the key project stakeholders, such as the customer and sponsor for the project, inspect and then formally accept the deliver-ables during this process.
____ involves controlling changes to project scope throughout the life of the project, which is a challenge on many information technology projects.
An up-to-date ____ is an important document for developing and confirming a common understanding of the project scope.
project scope statement
A(n) ____ is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project.
work breakdown structure
In the WBS, the main groupings for the work are listed in Level ____.
The ____ tasks vary the most from project to project.
In the ____, you use a similar project's WBS as a starting point.
The ____ approach is best suited to project managers who have vast technical insight and a big-picture perspective.
After discovering WBS items and structure using the ____ technique, you could then translate the information into chart or tabular form.
The goal of ____ is to influence the factors that cause scope changes, assure changes are processed according to procedures developed as part of integrated change control, and manage changes when they occur.
____ involves identifying the specific activities that the project team members and stakeholders must perform to produce the project deliverables.
____ involves identifying and documenting the relationships between project activities.
____ involves analyzing activity sequences, activity resource estimates, and activity duration estimates to create the project schedule.
developing the schedule
Outputs from ____ include work performance measurements, organizational process assets updates, change requests, project management plan updates, and project document updates.
controlling the schedule
The goal of ____ is to ensure that the project team has complete understanding of all the work they must do as part of the project scope so they can start scheduling the work.
____ involves evaluating the reasons for dependencies and the different types of dependencies.
____ dependencies are sometimes referred to as soft logic and should be used with care since they may limit later scheduling options.
____ occur when two or more activities follow a single node.
The ____ is a network diagramming technique in which boxes represent activities.
In a ____ relationship, the "from" activity cannot start until the "to" activity is started.
A ____ is a hierarchical structure that identifies the project's resources by category and type.
resource breakdown structure
The ultimate goal of ____ is to create a realistic project schedule that provides a basis for monitoring project progress for the time dimension of the project.
developing the schedule
____ is a network diagramming technique used to predict total project duration.
critical path analysis
____ is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any immediately following activities.
The ____ for an activity is the latest possible time an activity might begin without delaying the project finish date.
late start date
____ involves doing activities in parallel that you would normally do in sequence.
Critical chain scheduling protects tasks on the critical chain from being delayed by using ____, which consist of additional time added before tasks on the critical chain that are preceded by non-critical-path tasks.
____ use(s) probabilistic time estimates—duration estimates based on using optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimates of activity durations—instead of one specific or discrete duration estimate.
Project managers often illustrate progress with a ____ showing key deliverables and activities.
Tracking Gantt Chart
Project management software highlights the critical path in ____ on a network diagram.
There are ____ main processes involved in project time management.
The main outputs of the ____ process are an activity list, activity attributes, and milestone list.
____ involves estimating the number of work periods that are needed to complete individual activities.
estimating activity durations
____ involves controlling and managing changes to the project schedule.
controlling the schedule
The ____ provide(s) schedule-related information about each activity, such as predecessors, successors, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, constraints, imposed dates, and assumptions re-lated to the activity.
____ results in supporting detail to document important product information as well as assumptions and constraints related to specific activities.
____ dependencies are inherent in the nature of the work being performed on a project.
____ dependencies involve relationships between project and non-project activities.
On a network diagram, all arrowheads should face toward the ____.
In a ____ relationship, the "from" activity must finish before the "to" activity can start.
In a ____ relationship, one task cannot finish before another finishes.
The activity list, activity attributes, activity resource requirements, resource calendars, project scope statement, enterprise environmental factors, and organizational process assets all include information that af-fect ____.
____ provide(s) a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in a calendar format.
The critical path is the ____ path through a network diagram, and it represents the ____ time it takes to complete a project.
____ is the amount of time an activity can be delayed from its early start without delaying the planned project finish date.
____ is a technique for making cost and schedule trade-offs to obtain the greatest amount of schedule compression for the least incremental cost.
____ is a method of scheduling that considers limited resources when creating a project schedule and includes buffers to protect the project completion date.
Critical Chain Scheduling
____ states that work expands to fill the time allowed.
The goal of ____ is to know the status of the schedule, influence the factors that cause schedule changes, determine that the schedule has changed, and manage changes when they occur.
Project managers must use discipline to control ____.