Biology today and tomorrow ch 8

26 terms by SierraClayson 

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meiosis

Nuclear division process that halves the chromosome number. basis of sexual reproduction

mitosis

nuclear division mechanism that maintains the chromosome number. Basis of body growth,tissue repair and replacement in multicelled eukaryotes; also asexual reproduction in some plants, animals, fungi, and protists

cell cycle

a series of events from the times a cell forms until its cytoplasm divides

homogolous

refers to the two members of a pair of chromosomes with the same length, shape and genes

interphase

in a eukaryotic cell cycle, the interval between mitotic divisions when a cell grows, roughly doubles the number of its cytoplasmic components, and replicates its DNA

anaphase

stage of mitosis in which sister chromatids seperate andmove to opposite spindle poles

metaphase

stage of mitosis during which the cell's chromosomes align midway between the poles of the spindle

prophase

stage of mitosis in which chromosomes condense and become attatched to a newly froming spindle

spindle

dynamically assembled and disassembled array of microtublesthat moves chromosomes during nuclear division

telophase

stage of mitosis during which chromosomes arrice at the spindle poles and decondense, and new nuclei form

asexual reproduction

reproductive mode by which offspring arise from one parent and inheriet that one parents genes only

cell plate

after nuclear division in a plant cell, a disk shaped structure that forms a cross-wall between the two new nucllei

cleavage furrow

in a dividing animal cell, the indentation where cytoplasmic division will occur

clone

a genetically identical copy of an organism

contractile ring

a thin band of actin and myosin filaments that wraps around the midsection of an animal dell. During cytoplasmic division , the band contracts and pinches the cytoplasm in two

alleles

forms of a gene that encode slightly different versions of the genes product

fertilization

fusion of a sperm nucleus and an egg nucleus, the result being a single-celled zygote

gamete

mature, haploid reprosuctive cell

haploid

having one of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species

sexual reproduction

reproductive mode by which offspring arise from two parents and inherit genes from both.

zygote

cell formed by fusion of gamtes; first cell of a new individual

crossing over

process in which homologous chromosomes exchange corresponding segments during meiosis

egg

mature female gamete, or ovum

gametophyte

a haploid, multicelled body in which gametes form during the life cycle of plants

sperm

mature male gamete

sporophyte

diploid, spore-producing body of a plant

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