CHAPTER 8-10 PSYCH EXAM!

Created by rfreidenreich 

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rates of change in height and weight

At 2 yrs of age, average US child weighs 25 to 30 lbs and is approx 36 inches tall ( approx half their predicted adult height). At 6 yrs of age, average weight is 46 pounds and height is 46 inches tall.

myelin

protective insulation that surrounds parts of neurons

lateralization

specialization of functions, with these located more in one hemisphere of brain than in other

right hemisphere

spatial, music, emotions, patterns

left hemisphere

verbal (speaking, reading)

nightmare

A vivid bad dream, usually occurring toward morning

night terror

An intense physiological arousal that causes a child to awaken in a state of panic

obesity

body weight more than 20% higher than the average weight for age and height

cancer

Most frequent major illness to strike preschoolers

injuries

Before age 10, children have twice the likelihood of dying from an injury than from an illness

child abuse

The physical or psychological maltreatment or neglect of children

cycle-of-violence hypothesis

abuse and neglect that children suffer predisposes them as adults to abuse and neglect their own children

hyperreactivity hypothesis

individuals with greater emotional reactivity experience greater distress with child-related stressors.

psychological maltreatment

Harm to children's behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or physical functioning that is caused by parents or other caregivers who use verbal or psychological abuse, hurtful actions, exploitation, or neglect

child neglect

Ignoring one's children or being emotionally unresponsive to them

resilience

The ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at high risk for psychological or physical damage

gross motor skills

By 3 yrs/age: children have mastered jumping, hopping on one foot, skipping, and running &
By 4 to 5: motor skills have become honed, with greater control over their muscles.

fine motor skills

involve smaller, more delicate body movements; also show developmental patterns

handedness

clear preference for use of one hand over the other

preoperational stage

(2yrs-7yrs) children's use of symbolic thinking grows, mental reasoning emerges, and the use of concepts increases

operations

organized, formal, logical mental processes

symbolic function

the ability to use a mental symbol, a word, or an object to represent something that is not physically present; at the core of the increasingly sophisticated use of language

centration

concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects (Ex: "boys" have short hair)

conservation

understanding that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects

transformation

process in which one state is changed into another

egocentric thought

Thinking that does not take the viewpoints of others into account

2 forms of egocentric thought

1) Lack of awareness that others see things from a different physical perspective & 2) Failure to realize others may hold thoughts, feelings, and points of view that differ from theirs

intuitive thought

thinking that reflects use of primitive reasoning and preschooler's avid acquisition of knowledge about the world

autobiographical memory

Memory of particular events from one's own life

scripts

Broad representations in memory of events and the order in which they occur

Zone of proximal development (ZPD)

According to Vygotsky, the level at which a child can almost, but not fully, comprehend or perform a task without assistance

scaffolding

support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth

syntax

The combining of words and phrases to form meaningful sentences

fast mapping

process in which new words are associated with their meaning after only a brief encounter

grammar

The system of rules that determine how thoughts can be expressed

private speech

not intended for others and is commonly used by children during the preschool years

pragmatics

aspects of language relating to communicating effectively and appropriately with others

social speech

speech directed toward another person and meant to be understood by that person

Initiative-versus-guilt stage

(3-6 yrs); conflict between independence of action and occasional negative results of that action

erikson

psychosocial development involves change in the understanding of oneself as a member of society and understanding of others' behavior

self-concept

identity or set of beliefs of what one is like as an individual

collectivistic orientation

philosophy that promotes the notion of interdependence; the greater good outweighs individual benefit

individualistic orientation

philosophy that emphasizes personal identity and the uniqueness of the individual over the group/the greater good

race dissonance

The phenomenon in which minority children indicate preferences for majority values or people

identification

children attempt to be similar to their parent of same sex, incorporating the parent's attitudes and values

gender identity

perception of oneself as male or female

gender schema

cognitive framework that organizes information relevant to gender

gender constancy

fact that people are permanently males or females, depending on fixed, unchangeable biological factors

functional play

involves simple, repetitive activities typical of 3-year-olds

constructive play

children manipulate objects to produce or build something

parallel play

children play with similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not interact with each other (Ex: Boys drive toy trucks separately)

onlooker play

children simply watch others at play but do not actually participate themselves

associative play

Two or more children interact by sharing or borrowing toys or materials, although they do not do the same thing

cooperative play

children genuinely interact with one another, taking turns, playing games, or devising contests

authoritarian parents

Parents are controlling, punitive, rigid, and cold and whose word is law; they value strict, unquestioning obedience from their child; No tolerance of disagreement

permissive parents

Parents provide lax and inconsistent feedback; require little of their children

authoritative parents

warm but firm, setting clear and consistent limits; try to reason with their children, providing explanations for rules

uninvolved parents

Parents who show virtually no interest in their children, displaying indifferent, rejecting behavior

moral development

the maturation of one's sense of justice, of what is right and wrong, and their behavior in connection with such issues

Piagets 3 stages of moral development

Heteronomous morality (4-7 years),
Incipient cooperation stage (7-10 years),
Autonomous cooperation stage (10 + years)

prosocial behavior

Helping behavior that benefits others

abstract modeling

modeling paves the way for the development of more general rules and principles

empathy

The understanding of what another individual feels

aggression

Intentional injury or harm to another person

emotional self-regulation

capability to adjust one's emotions to a desired state and level of intensity

relational aggression

Nonphysical aggression that is intended to hurt another person's psychological well-being (Ex: name-calling)

instrumental aggression

Aggression motivated by a desire to obtain a concrete goal (Ex: hitting to get a toy)

emmy werner

came up with resilience

Lev Vygotsky

argues that the focus of cognitive development should be on a child's social and cultural world; opposite of Piaget's approaches

Lev Vygotsky

came up with the zone of proximal development (ZPD)

quality

a key factor in the effects of preschools are their level of

developmentally appropriate educational practices

David Elkind argues children require practices, which are based on both typical development and the unique characteristics of a given child

David Elkind

argues for developmentally appropriate educational practices

Erik Erikson

suggested that during preschool years, children face a key conflict relating to psychosocial development that involves the development of initiative; came up with psychosocial development

psychosocial development

encompasses changes both in individuals understanding of themselves and their understanding of others behavior

4 approaches to gender development

biological, psychoanalytic, social learning, and cognitive

Diana Baumrind

identified 4 alternatives of the major parenting styles

theory of mind

refers to knowledge and beliefs about how the mind operates, becomes increasingly sophisticated during the preschool years

authoritative

parenting discipline style that seems most effective

model

observation of a _______ who is rewarded for prosocial behavior can lead to prosocial behavior on the part of the observer

becoming less chubby roundish and grow more slender

during the preschool years the body shape changes by

their muscles size increases and their bones become sturdier

children grow stronger as

increasingly differentiated and specialized

during the preschool period two brain hemispheres become

25-30 lbs

at two years of age an average child weighs

46 lbs and 46 inches

at 6 years of age a child weighs _____ and is ____ inches tall

economic factors

what influences height and weight changes around the world?

a preschoolers growing cognitive capabilities

increase in myelin may be related to

unusual growth spurts

during childhood their seems to be periods of _____ in the brain that are linked to advances in the cognitive abilities

sleep patterns

most children settle down fairly easily and drift off into sleep but some children have difficultly sleeping

minor illnesses

7-10 colds which can actually benefit child by building up immunity system

benefits of minor illnesses

boost immunity against more severe illnesses, help children gain knowledge of own bodies enhance coping skills, improve empathy

major illnesses

cancer (leukemia), AIDS

injury control

wearing helmets, seat belts, lock up cleaning supplies

lead poisoning

poor children are particularly susceptible to

twice

before the age of 10 children are _______ likely to die from an injury than an illness

physical activity, risks

the danger of injuries during the preschool years involve childrens high levels of ______ and some children more apt to take ______

gross motor skills (age 3)

by _____ children have mastered jumping, hopping on one foot, skipping, and running

age 4-5

by _____ childrens motor skills have been honed with greater control over their muscles

gross motor skill advances

related to brain development and myelination of neurons in areas of the brain related to balance and coordination

2-7, stability, change

preoperational thinking occurs from age _____ and is a time of both _____ and ______

lack of logical thought

piaget tended to focus on preschoolers deficiencies in thinking, focusing his observations on children

better

preschoolers who participate in head start are _____ prepared for future schooling than those who did now

no

children before the age of 2 should watch _______ television

androgynous

having both female and male characteristics

social learning approach

sees children as learning gender related behavior and expectations by observing others

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