What are lipids?
four examples of lipids
oils, wax, steroids, hormones
functions of lipids?
insulation, long term stored energy
monomer for fat
3 fatty acids and glyceral
what is the monomer for fat also known as?
polymer for fats
two or more monomers
the type of fat that comes from animals
in saturated fats, there is are __________ bonds between the carbon chains
saturated fats are __________
saturated fats at room temperature are
example of saturated fat
lard and butter
unsaturated fats come from
unsaturated fats are the ______ fats
example of unsaturated fats
olive oil, canola oil, vegetable oil, peanut oil, sunflower oil
there is at least one ________ bond in between the carbon chains in unsaturated fats
unsaturated fats at room temperature are
what does DNA stand for?
What does RNA stand for?
monomers for nucleic acids
phosphate group, 5 carbon sugar, and nitrogen base
Letters that go with DNA (in pairs)
Letters that go with RNA (in pairs)
what does the "U" in RNA stand for?
What does the "A" in both RNA and DNA stand for?
what does the "T" in DNA stand for?
What does the "C" in RNA and DNA stand for?
What does the "G" in RNA and DNA stand for?
Who created the DNA structure?
Watson and Crick
What are the rungs made of?
The letters in DNA are held together by which bond?
What two things are on the sides of the ladder in the structures of RNA and DNA?
Phosphate and sugar
What is the function of carbs?
what are the elements in carbs?
C, H, O
What is the ratio between the H and O in carbs
write the formula for glucose
C6 H12 O6
write the formula for maltose
C12 H22 O11
what is the building block of a carb?
what is a monomer?
one building block
what is a polymer?
many building blocks combined
name 3 foods that have carbs in them
bread, pasta, vegetables
what is gatorade considered?
what is a monosaccharide?
what is a disaccharide?
what is a polysaccharide?
3 or more sugars
what is a monosaccharide of carbs?
glucose and fructose
what is a disaccharide of carbs?
what is dehydration synthesis?
making a larger molecule by removing water
what is cellulose?
in plant cell walls (gives rigidity)
what is chitin?
found in cell walls of fungi also found in skeleton of insects and lobster
what is glycogen?
stored form of glucose in large amounts by the liver
what is starch?
stored form of glucose in plants
name the organic compounds
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
organic compounds must have what two elements?
carbon and hydrogen
what is induced fit?
it is when the enzyme and substrate do not fit perfectly at the active site and the enzyme will have to reshape itself to fit substrate
what is noncompetitive inhibits?
when a substrate attaches to the enzyme in another area and changed the shape of the active sit
what are coenzymes?
helpers that enable enzyme to fit exactly into the substrate
example of coenzyme
what elements do proteins contain?
sometimes proteins have what element?
function of proteins
growth and repair
2 examples of proteins
enzymes and antibodies
monomer for proteins?
What makes amino groups different?
The "R" group
what do peptide bonds do?
join amino acids together
what is a dipeptide?
two amino acids held together by a peptide bond
what is a polypeptide?
3 or more amino acids held together by a peptide bond
what is tertiary?
combination of alpha helix and bata pleated sheets
example of tertiary
what are enzymes?
protein catalyst that regulate chemical reactions
two characteristics of enzymes
reusable and lock and key theory
what enzyme only works on starch?
what is hydrolysis?
when a larger molecule changed into a smaller molecule by adding water
what affects enzymes?
temperature and pH
how does temperature affect enzymes?
as temperature increases the enzyme will work faster
what is denaturation?
when enzymes melt
how does pH affect enzymes?
certain enzymes work in specific pHs
two examples of proteins that work in specific pHs
protease only works in acids and lipase only works in bases
how does the amount of enzymes affect the amount of substrate and vice versa?
too little of either will change rate of reaction
example of amount of enzymes affecting amount of substrate and vice versa
too little substrate, the enzyme will work quickly
too much substrate, the enzyme will work slowly
what kind of sugar is in DNA?
what kind of sugar is in RNA?
what is the function of DNA?
to hold genetic information