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what are the stages in order for the cardiac cycle?

-atrial systole begins (0 m seconds)
-artrial systole ends atrial diastole begins (100 msecs)
-ventricle systole (370 msecs)
-ventricle diastole early
-ventricle diastole late (800 msecs)

As the ....... contract rising atrial pressures push blood into the ......... through the open right and left AV valves

atria, ventricles

at the start of atrial systole the ..... are already filled to about ..... percent of their normal capacity due to .... .... .... during the end of the previous cycle.

ventricles, 70, passive blood flow

as the atria contract rising atrial ...... provide the remaining .... percent by pushing blood through the open AV valves. Atrial...... essentially "tops off" the ventricles.

pressures, 30, systole

At the end of atrial systole each ventricle contains the ...... amount of blood that it will hold in this cardiac cycle.

maximum

the maximum amount of blood that the ventricle will hold in this cardiac cycle is called......

end diastolic volume

An adult that is standing at rest the end diastolic volume is typically about......

130 mL about 4.4 oz

during ventricular systole the ventricles are contracting but blood flow has yet to occur however, because the ventricular ...... are not high enough to force open the ..........., and push the blood into the pulmonary and aortic trunk.

pressures, semilunar valves

contract isometrically?

they generate tension and ventricular pressures rise, but blood flow does not occur.

isovolumetric contraction?

All the heart valves are closed, the volumes of the ventricles remain constant, and ventricular pressures rise

once the pressure in the ....... exceeds that in the ...... trunks, the ........ valves open and blood flows into the pulmonary and aortic trunks.

ventricles, atrial, semilunar

during ventricular ...... , each ventricle will eject 70-80 mL of blood the ....... of the heart.

ejection, stroke volume

the stroke volume at ........ is roughly 60 percent of the end diastolic volume, this percentage is known as the .......

rest, ejection fraction

as the end of ventricular systole approaches ventricular ....... fall rapidly. blood in the aorta and the pulmonary trunk no start to flow back toward the ....... and this movement closes the ....... As the back flow begins, pressure ....... in the aorta

pressures, ventricles, semilunar valves, decreases

When the semilunar valves close the pressure .... again as the elastic arterial walls ......

rises, recoil

the amount of blood remaining in the ventricle when the semilunar valve closes is the .......

end systolic volume (ESV)

At rest the end systolic volume is ..... mL bout ..... percent of the end diastolic volume

50, 40

The period of ventricular diastole lasts for the ...... msecs

430

all the heart valves are now closed and the ventricular myocardium is relaxing, because ventricular pressures are still higher than atrial pressures blood cannot flow into the ventricles. this is know as what

isovolumetric relaxation

Ventricular pressure drop rapidly over this period (........) because the elasticity of the connective tissues of the heart and cardiac skeleton helps ....... ventricles toward their resting dimensions

isovolumetric relaxation, reexpand

when ventrical pressures fall below those of the ...... the arterial pressures force the AV valves open. blood now flows from the atria to the ventricles, both are now in ........ but the .... pressures continue to fall as the .... chambers expand. Throughout this period pressures in the ventricles are so far ..... those in the major ..... that blood pours through the relaxed ..... and on through the open AV valves into the ventricles. This whole process is the primary method of ......

atria, diastole, ventricular, ventricular, below, vein, atria, ventricular filling

The ventricles will be nearly three quarters ...... before the cardiac cycle ......

full, ends

what are the four heart sounds designated as?

s1
s2
s3
s4

The first heart sound is know as the ...... and lasts a little longer then the ...... which is called the .....

lubb, second, dubb

The s1, lubb sound marks what?

the start of ventricle contraction, is produced by the AV valves close

s2 marks what?

beginning of ventricular filling, when the semilunar valves close

s3 and s4 are easy to hear or hard to hear? why?

hard to hear, because these sounds are associated with the blood rather than valve action.

s3 marks what?

blood flowing into the ventricles

s4 marks what?

atrial contraction

if the valve cusps are malformed or there is something wrong with the papillary muscles or the chordae tendinae the heart valves may not close properly, then AV valve regurgitation happens so there is swirling surges and eddies going on that accompany regurgitation which creates a rushing gurgling sound known as .......

heart murmur

minor heart murmurs are.....

common and inconsequential

the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in one minute

cardiac output

how do you calculate the cardiac output?

by multiplying the heart rate by the average stroke volume.
HR x SV = CO

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