after the Civil War, changes in southern agriculture were seen in...?____________
the replacement of large plantations with smaller farms
what was a key component of the South becoming more industrialized after the Civil War?________
expansion of railroads and transportation
after the Civil War...?_________
the southern lagged behind the northern economy
dramatic drops in the yield from cotton cultivation in some southern states in the late 1800's was due to...?_________
the affects of the boll weevil_(a kind of beetle that destroyed much of the South's cotton crops)
farmer's alliance members requested that the federal government?_________
force railroads to lower freight prices
the potential power of interracial cooperation was visible in..?_______
the membership of the farmer's alliance
in the early 1800's the U.S. government executed a policy of..?__________
moving Native Americans to the Great Plains
the Sand Creek Massacre occurred when..?_______
members of a Colorado militia killed many peaceful Cheyenne and Alfredo Indians
in Montana in 1866, Captain William Fetterman and his troops...?________
were lured into a ambush and killed by Red Cloud and his followers
a series of major and minor events in Texas over the course of one year that led to the defeat of the southern Plain Indians was known as the?_______
Red River War
which Native American group lived on land in Idaho and included many individuals who were successful horse and cattle breeders?_______
Assimilation is the process of...?_______
becoming part of another group by adopting its characteristics
the Dawes General Allotment Act of 1887...?_______
granted 160-acre farmsteads to Indian families (the act was passed partly to accelerate the process of assimilation
the ultimate goal of the Dawes General Allotment Act was the...?________
assimilation of Indians into white culture
a mining town that did Not diversify and grow became a...?_______
ghost town (when the gold ran out, towns that were founded overnight also disappeared)
by the 1870's most mining was done by?_______
large companies with heavy equipment
the transcontinental railroad was completed...?______
under harsh conditions for many Chinese and Irish laborers (the railroads were worked on by many immigrants)
after cowboys rounded up cattle...?_____
they drove the animals toward a railroad
a factor that contributed to the decline of open-range cattle reaching was?______
barbed wire (it enabled hurdlers to keep cattle fenced in)
the "Exodusters" were...?_______-
a group of African Americans who founded all-black towns in Kansas and Oklahoma
"I am tired of fighting...It is cold, and we have no blankets; the little children are freezing to death. ... Hear me, my chiefs.... From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever."
QUOTE by - Chief Joseph of Nez Perce
what did Henry Grady call for?
a "New South"
what was a key component of industrialization?
transportation. (to meet this need, southern railroad lines Expanded, linking cities and towns_joining rural areas with urban hubs)
the crops such as cotton and tobacco that most planters had concentrated on before the Civil War, which were grown for their own use, but to be sold for cash and continued after the war
Land owners dictated the crop, the place to live and seeds and tools for their 'freed men' in return for a share of the crop. (it was a step above slavery)
connected farmers in the south and the west. members tried to convince the government to force railroads to lower freight prices so members could get their crops to markets outside the South at reduced rates.
the Civil Right's Act of 1875
enacted by Congress, guaranteeing black patrons the right to ride trains and use public facilities such as hotels
specific areas set aside by the government for the Indians use (no longer free to roam the Plains, Indians faced suppression and poverty
*****Sand Creek Massacre*****
the first battle of the Plains Indians_ U.S. troops killed unarmed Cheyenne and Arapaho men, women, and children because they refused to get off their land
Sioux lured Captain William Fetterman and his troops into an ambush
*****Red River War*****
Series of conflicts end with defeat of southern Plains Indians, Texas panhandle opened to white settlement
*****Battle of the Little Bighorn*****
in Montana. Colonel George Custer meets a huge Sioux force. Custer and all 250 of his men perish. _the Indians survived and the soldiers were wiped out..Custer's Last Stand!
*****Nez Perce War*****
Rather than relocate to a reservation, Nez Perces flee more than 1,000 miles but are forced to surrender just short of the Canadian border
led a group of refugees on a trek of more than 1,300 miles to Canada. He was the leader of Nez Perce, who was trying to evade U.S. troops who had come to enforce their relocation. He eventually surrendered saying, "I will fight no more forever."
*****Battle of Wounded Knee*****
they did Ghost Dances to "bring back the buffalo" (religious belief that the buffalo would return and the Sioux would drive out the white man) the Ghost Dance raises fears of Sioux uprising. More than 100 Sioux are Killed at wounded Knee. _ marked the last major "battle" of the Indian Wars
Promontory Point, Utah
a rail link between the East and the West to transport goods back and forth
(another form of loan) gave builders wide stretches of land, alternating on each side of the track route. _ the government expected private contractors to build railroads, and railroads cost money, so they came up with land grants
punished law breakers to keep the peace
open range was a vast area of grassland on which livestock roamed freely. Each owner marked or "branded" the cattle so that they could be identified. The ranchers claimed ownership and knew the boundaries of their property, but cattle from any ranch grazed freely across the boundaries of their property
Homestead Act 1862
a law, offered by the government, that gave 160 acres of land to citizens willing to live on and cultivate it for 5 years, dig a well, and build a road.
African Americans who migrated from the South to the West after the Civil War. This group was organized by a black business man from Tennessee. Some of these new settlers were former slaves who fled to the South after the end of reconstruction. They stayed in Kansas and Oklahoma
Crazy Horse Mountain
a huge monument in South Dakota (larger than Mt Rushmore) _it is not a national park but you still have to pay admission. the head was 100 ft. and the arm was about the length of a football field (you can fit 4,000 people on his arm)
a "story teller in stone" the sculptor of Crazy Horse Mountain
moved to South Dakota in 1925. He carved the faces of the four presidents on Mt. Rushmore (**Thomas Jefferson* -bought the Louisiana Purchase *George Washington* **Abraham Lincoln* *Theodore Roosevelt** -expanded the U.S.)
Oklahoma Land Rush 1889
the last great land rush! or last opportunity to pick up homesteads (free land)
"Up to our own day American history has been in a large degree the history of the colonization of the Great West."
QUOTE by Frederick Jackson Turner
He was a spiritual leader of the of Hunkpapa band, one of 7 Lakota Sioux groups that lived by hunting buffalo. He was a farmed fighter who also was named Hunkpapa war chief. His reputation was so good that the Lakota chose him as the first ever chief of all seven bands
analyze the economic and social factors that changed the American West following the Civil War
Farming resulted in a rush for land and there was new farming technology. There was ranching, like cow town and cattle drives. Mining became a environmental impact and there were Boom-towns and Ghost towns. Railroads helped the growth of towns and cities and linked between the east and the west, providing better and faster way of transporting goods from one place to another.
analyze how the pressures of westward expansion impact Native Americans
the Indians spent most of their time fighting for their land, but during this process, they still lost their land and family because most of them were killed. Indians were living on the Prairie, the white people were trying to move in. they tried to turn them into white men by stripping them of their culture and forcing them to adapt to the american way. They had to dress the way we dress and they were taught our language. They were basically treated the same way as the immigrants____Reservation Policy of the federal government was not successful. Federal Agents had no understanding of Native American tribal organization or ancestral lands and beliefs.