study of carbon compounds
phosphorus, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, sulfur
major elements of life.
belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical and chemical laws, provided the foundation for the new discipline of organic chemistry.
view that physical and chemical laws govern all natural phenomena
atom's chemical characteristics
carbon can branch off into four directions
organic molecules consistiing of hydrogen and carbon. fat molecules have this type of "tail." it means teh bonds are nonpolar so they don't dissolve in water, and they undergo reactions that release lots of energy.
compounds with the same number of atoms of teh same elements, bug a different structure and different properties.
different covalent arrangements
differ in spatial arrangements
the X's are on opposite sides of teh molecule
x's on same side of molecule
isomers that are mirror images of eachother, and one is usuallly biologically inactive.
participates in chemical reactions in a characteristic way.
can consist of thousands of atoms, (carbs, proteins, nucleic acids)
long molecule with many similar or identical building blocks, linkked by covalent bonds.
repeating building blocks of a polymer
condensation reaction/ dehydration reaction
monomer molecules bonded together through the loss of a water molecule.
specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells.
polymers disassembled to monomers by the reverse of ehydration reaction. the bonds between monomers are broken by adding water.
built from 20 amino acid.
sugars and polymers of sugars
covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
carbon attatched to four different atoms
monosaccharide, major fuel for cell work
disaccharide, plants transport carbs in the form of this.
polymers with a few hundred to few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages
stored sugars in animals of plants like starch and gluclose.
polymer of glucose monomers as granules within cellular structures known as plastids, including chloroplasts.
#1 Carbon to a #4 Carbon
glucose polymer, stored in liver and muscle cells
used to build strong materials
major thing of cell wall
carb used by ahtopods (insects) to build exoskeletons
barely mix with water. hydrophobic behavior based on moleculuar structure. mostly hydrocarbon regions.
three fatty acids joined to a glycerol by ester linkage
alcohol wth three carbons, each with a hydroxyl group
long carbon skeleton, carbon at the end is a carboxyl group with a hydrocarbon chain attached.
bond between hydroxyl and carboxyl groups.
saturated fatty acid
has no double bonds between carbons
unsaturated fatty acid
one or more double bonds, formed by removal of hydrogen atoms from the carbon skeleton. fatty acid is bent.
unsaturated fats with trans double bonds
make up cell membrane. two fatty acids to one glycerol.
precursor from which steriods are synthesized.
regulate metabolism by acting as catalysts.
selectively speeed up chemical reactions without being consumed by reaction.
most structurally sophisticated molecule known, have unique 3D shape
polymers of amino acids
amino acid monomers
organic molecules posessng carboxyl and amino groups
the resulting covalent bond when a carboxyl and amino group are joined by a dehydration reaction
polymer of many Amino acids linked by peptide bonds. one end has a free amino group, the other has a carboxyl.
one or more polpeptides folded and coiled exactly into a molecule
long, fiber shaped proteins
unique sequence of amino acids determined by DNA
coils and folds resulting from hydrogen bonds between repeating polypeptide backbones
delicate coil held toge by h bonds btween every fourth amino acid
beta pleated sheet
h bonds between parts of parallel polypeptide backbones
polypeptides overal shape resulting from interactions between the side chains (r groups)
amino acids with nonpolar sides usually end up in clusters out of contact with water
covalent bonds between sulfur
overall protein structure that rsults from its polypeptide subunits.
protein loses its shape due to pH, salt concentration, temp, etc
protein molecules that assist in proper folding of other proteins
determines 3d structures of proteins
unit of inheritance which programs an a.a. sequence in a polypeptide
genetic material organisms inherit from parents. provides directions for its own replication
messenger ribonucleic acid interact with ribosome to produce a polypeptide, which then folds into a protein.
nitrogenous base, five carbon sugar (pentose), and a phosphate group
have six membered carbon rings and nitrogen atoms. (cytosine, thymine, and urasil)
six membered ring fused t five member ring (adenine, guanine)
nucleotides joined by a phosphodiester linkage