politics in which the behavior of citizens and policymakers and the agenda itself are shaped by technology
television, radio, newspapers, magazines, the Internet, and other means of popular communication.
events purposely staged for the media that nonetheless look spontaneous. In keeping with politics as theater, media events can be staged by individuals, groups, and government officials, especially presidents.
meetings of public officials with reporters.
the use of in-depth reporting to unearth scandals, scams, and schemes, which at times puts reporters in adversarial relationships with political leaders.
newspapers and magazines
television and radio
media programming on cable TV or the Internet that is focused on one topic and aimed at a particular audience. Examples include MTV, ESPN, and C-SPAN.
newspapers published by massive media conglomerates that account for almost three-quarters of the nation's daily circulation.
specific locations from which news frequently emanates, such as Congress or the White House. Most top reporters work a particular beat, thereby becoming specialists in what goes on at that location.
intentional news leak for the purpose of assessing the political reaction.
short video clips; typically all that is shown from a politician's speech or activities on the nightly television news.
shot of a person's face talking directly to the camera. Because this is visually unappealing, the major commercial networks rarely show a politician talking one-on-one for very long.
issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actively involved in politics at the time.
people who invest their political "capital" in an issue. According to John Kingdon, a policy entrepreneur "could be in or out of government, in elected or appointed positions, interest groups or research organizations."