AP GOVERNMENT lecture 4
|purpose of government||security, create order (laws), avoid anarchy|
|types of government||democracy, totalitarianism|
|democracy||a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them|
|social contract||agreement to give up our freedom to protect our individual rights. ie: articles of confederation/ constitution|
|two types of democracy||direct vs. indirect|
|indirect democracy||system in which the people are ruled by their representatives. Also known as representative democracy, or republic|
|direct democracy||a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives.|
|republic||a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them|
|distribution of power in a political system||majoritarian view, elitist view, pluralist view, hyperpluralist view|
|majoritarian view||leaders are heavily influenced by the will of the people. majority wins all the time. people get what they want. highly participatory.|
|elitist view|| 1. marxist: influence of common elites. economic elite control gov. highly efficient|
2. C. Wright Mills: influence of power elite: corporate, military, political media.
3. Max Weber: influence of bureaucracy. bureaucracy controls government. environmentalists.
|pluralist view||1. political resources are so scattered that no single elite has a monopoly on them |
2. there are so many institutions in which power is exercised that no single elite could possibly control all of them
3. pluralism therefore argues that many groups compete with each other for control over policy. Policy is therefore the outcome of political haggling, innumerable compromises, and ever-shifting alliances among groups
trying to find balance.
nobody wins all the time
|hyperpluralist view||"pluralism gone sour" there are so many groups and they are so strong that government has become grid locked and is unable to act. seems like government cant make decisions.|
|fundamental democratic values||popular sovereignty, respect for the individual, liberty, equality|
|popular sovereignty||supreme or ultimate authority derived from the people over an autonomous state. , rule by the people|
|respect for the individual||states serves individual, not vice versa|
|equality||"egalitarianism" political vs economical egalitarianism. everyone should vote, get paid the same equal opportunities.|
|fundamental democratic processes|| A. free and fair elections with competing political parties. |
B. Majority rule with minority rights. Fear that tyranny of the minority led to protection of property rights.
C. Freedom of expression
D. right to assemble and protest
|Fundamental democratic structures||federalism, separation of powers, checks and balances, constitutionalism|
|federalism||a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments|
|separation of powers||the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government|
|checks and balances||A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power|
|constitutionalism||advocacy of a system of government according to constitutional principles|