State of complete physical, mental, and social well being- not merely the absence of disease. A state of actual of potential health.
Activities that increase the well being and enhance wellness or health. Ex; nutrition is important in health promotion, exercise, mental health (support groups, family education)
Associated with health promotion. A technique to prepare patients, families, etc. in upcoming procedures, milestones, events and experiences related to their health and well being.
Health Maintenance (health protection)
Activities that preserve an individuals state of health and that prevent disease or injury occurrence.
Focuses on activities that decrease opportunity for illness or injury. (yearly immunizations, infant car seats, swimming lessons, etc.)
Focuses on early diagnosis and treatment of a condition to lesson its severity (any SCREENING, blood/glucose checks, annual exams)
Involves an insult to the body, symptom, or diagnosis. Focuses on restoration to optimum function. (rehabilitation activities, support groups, and counseling)
Evaluation of growth
Includes; Height & length, BMI, weight, head circumference
Evaluation of development
A continuance process of observation and interviewing that seeks to identify child's capabilities based on age
Erikson: Infancy (Psychosocial)
Trust versus mistrust
Freud: Infancy-Toddler (Psychosexual)
Oral Stage (0-18mo) uses mouth as major source of gratification.
Anal Stage (8mo-4yrs) Neuromuscular control of anal sphincter.
Havighurst: Infancy & Early Childhood (Developmental)
Achieves physiologic stablility, learning to eat solids, walk and talk, forming simple concepts of social and physical reality, relating to emotionally to parents, siblings, and others, eliminates body wastes, distinguish right from wrong, sexual differences & modesty.
Piaget: Infancy (Cognitive)
Sensorimotor Stage (Birth-24 mo) demonstrated by completion of developmental stages; 0-1mo basic reflexes, 1-4mo discovers enjoyment in random behaviors (sucking thumb), 4-8mo Relates own behavior to changes in environment (shake rattle to hear sound), 8-12mo coordinates more than one thought at a time
Piaget: Toddler-School Age (Cognitive)
Preoperational Stage (2-7yrs) :Divided into 2 stages Preconceptual(2-4yrs): vocab and comprehension increase, egocentric-ism common.
Intuitive stage(4-7yrs) relies on transductive reasoning. Draws conclusions from 1 event to another without real relativity. (mom and dad fight, child thinks he/she is at fault) *object permanence, asks "why"
Cognitive development occurs..(Piaget)
through ASSIMILATION; integrating new experiences into current mental process and ACCOMMODATION; alteration of existing thought processes to manage more complex information.
Kohlberg: Infancy - Preschool (Moral)
Preconventional (4-7yrs) divided into;
Stage 1: punishment and obedience (choices based on fear of physical consequence or authority disapproval)
Stage 2: instrumental relativist orientation (receiving reward overcomes fear of punishment)
Fowler: Infancy-School Age
Prestage: undifferentiated faith (trust, courage, hope and love compete with threats of abandonment) faith based on infants relationship with caregiver
Stage 1: intuitive-projective faith (typical 3-7yrs) Imitate religious gestures and behaviors of others
Stage 2: mythical-literal faith (school age) stories represent religious and moral beliefs. Child accepts existence of a deity.
Erikson: Toddler (Psychosocial)
Autonomy versus shame and doubt (1-3yrs) control body excretions, saying "no" when requests are made, feeding self.
Erikson: Preschool (Psychosocial)
Initiative versus Guilt (4-6yrs) marked by creativity and exploring new activities and ideas. * avoid constant criticism to instill guilt
Erikson: School-Age (Psychosocial)
Industry versus Inferiority (6-12yrs) child becomes more socially involved in activities at home, school, sports and community. *Inferiority comes from child lack of accomplishment or what he/she feels expected
Freud: Preschool (Psychosexual)
Phallic Stage (3-7yrs) gender differences identified. Exploration is normal.
Freud: School-Age (Psychosexual)
Latency Stage (7-12yrs) identify sex roles within same sex. Dormant stage of sexual energy.
Havighurst: Middle Childhood (Developmental)
Ages 6-12yrs. Learns skills necessary for games, develops fundamental skills. Develops conscious, morality, and value system. Achieves personal independence.
Kohlberg: School age- Adolescent
Conventional (7-11yrs) divided into;
Stage 3: Good boy-good girl (strives to be viewed as "good)
Stage 4: law and order (behavior follows social or religious rules from a respect for authority.)
Common defense mechanisms
mimics other children w/o interacting
interactive play between children
"assembly line play," one child cuts out colored paper while her friend glues on paper in a design.
living out the drama of human life.
Developmental Milestones (12 mo)
Walks, drinks from a cup, speaks one-three words and understands "yes", "no", "stop."
Developmental Milestones (15 mo)
Walks up stairs, stacks blocks, points to body parts, explores environment
Developmental Milestones (18 mo)
Walks more stable, pushes or pulls toys, stacks multiple blocks, uses utensils to eat, follows directions and increased vocal up to 20 words
Developmental Milestones (2-3yrs)
Walks up and down stairs, kicks ball, scribbles and draws lines on paper, imitates words and actions of adults.
Developmental Milestones (3-4yrs)
Jumps, rides tricycle, draws precise lines on paper, attempts to imitate circle, line and cross. Always feeds self, dresses self, more social
Developmental Milestones (4-5yrs)
States name, draws rudimentary person, throws ball overhand
Signs of developmental delays (Infant)
no tracking, no eye conrtact, not sitting over, no attachment.
Various Families (4)
Nuclear family (2 parents and children)
Extended family (aunts, uncles, grandparents)
Blended family (2 parents and unrelated children from previous relationships)
Bi-nuclear (co-parenting: children alternate between 2 homes)