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Code of Ethics

framework of shared values of the profession that help guide the behaviors of a health education specialist.

Consultation

the process by which the knowledge of one person is used to help another make better decisions

Informal Consulting

does not require a written agreement or formal contract. Consists of acting as a resource person responsible for organizing health education materials and responding to requests for health education information and literature/materials.

Formal Consulting

requires a contract or written agreement between two parties, the client and consultant. Hired for his/her expertise in a particular area for which the client needs assistance, advice, direction, etc. Follows the steps of diagnosis, recommendation, action, evaluation, and termination. Requires the health education specialist to provide technical expertise, current theory, and specialized knowledge.

Evidence-Based

refers to program or strategies that have been evaluated and are found to be effective

Health Literacy

the extent to which individuals have the ability to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and care services to make appropriate health decisions.

Health Numeracy

the ability to understand numbers which affect individuals' health care decisions and behaviors.

Primary Data Source

publications of descriptions of research studies or data written by the individual who participated in or conducted the studies.

Secondary Data Source

publications of research studies or data written by an individual who did NOT participate in those studies or data collection.

Tertiary Data Source

publications such as encyclopedias or other compendia that sum up secondary and primary sources. Includes reference tools such as pamphlets or fact sheets.

U.S. Census

offers quality data about the people and economy in the U.S. Primary source for population and health statistics

National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)

a rich source of information about the health status of the population and monitors trends in health status and health care delivery.

World Health Organization

Located in Geneva, Switzerland. The most recognized international health organization, and provides a variety of health information and data on their website.

Voluntary Health Agencies

organizations that deal with health needs and may rely heavily on donations or volunteers to function.

Foundations

charitable organizations that donate funds or assets for a specific purpose.

MedlinePlus

National Library of Medicine's Web site (both in english and spanish) for consumer health information. It includes health topics, a medical encyclopedia, interactive health tutorials, and health news.

Healthfinder

a Department of Health and Human Services Web site for consumer access to information from governmental agencies and their partners. It offers links to online journals, medical dictionaries and prevention and self-care.

Health on the Net (HON)

non-profit medical information portal that links to reliable and trustworthy medical sites on the internet.

HEDIR and HEALTHPROM

electronic mailing lists used by health education specialists to broadcast messages and questions to other health education specialists via E-mail.

GEM (the Gateway to Educational Materials)

a searchable website that provides educators with quick and easy access to thousands of educational resources found on federal, state, university, nonprofit, and commercial internet sites.

HRSA (Health Resources and Services Administration)

of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services provides a wide variety of health education materials free of charge.

National Health Information Center

referral source for health information and has a Health Information Resource Database

MEDLINE/PubMed

contains primarily medical journals. Many health education journals are also indexed. Database is free. Full-text articles may require a fee.

ERIC (Education Resource Information Center)

this database contains journals related to school health, school-aged children, and education in its broadest sense. Often includes articles from professional journals and documents.

CHID (Combined Health Information Database)

database produces through the combined efforts of several federal agencies organized by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). Provides descriptions of health education and health promotion programs in progress at state and local levels, bibliographic citations and abstracts of journal articles, full-text articles, books, reports, pamphlets, audiovisuals, and other health promotion and education materials.

CINAHL (Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature)

database for health education information indexes, major health education journals, and journals from nursing and many other disciplines. May involve a fee for subscription.

EBMR (Evidence-based Medicine Review)

a collection of databases that offer evidence-based strategies, programs and medicine such as Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE), Health Technology Assessments (HTA), methods and article reviews.

PsycInfo

database includes a summary of journal articles, books, dissertations and technical reports from professional and academic literature in psychology.

Evaluating Quality of Online Resource

Website purpose, Domain name, Priority population, Site's appropriateness, Site's accuracy, Site's adequacy, Site's currency, Readability, Reputable affiliations, Author/administrative names, Author contact information.

Consequences of Poor Health Literacy

inappropriate or no usage of health care services, improper use of medicines, poor health outcomes, or poor self-management of chronic conditions. Read slowly, take words literally, skip over uncommon or unknown words, have short attention spans and hide their limited abilities to read.

SMOG (Simple Measure of Gobbledygook), Fry Readability formula, Flesch-Kincaid readability tests

literacy methods to evaluate the reading level of a material.

Strategies to Assist in Health Numeracy

present fewer health statistics, reduce the need for inferences and calculations, use visual cues or displays to show numbers and use analogies with which people are familiar, focusing on one numeric idea at a time (one per sentence), using analogies or physical items to represent quantity (fist as a serving size of fruits), or teaching with stories.

Educational Materials Review Form

assesses form, length, topic, mode of delivery, setting, target audience, language, readability, scope of the material (national to local), pre-test or evaluated, availability, and language.

Five Recommended Steps in Conducting a Training Needs Assessment

1. Identify the need or problem (learn about the organizational context, perform a gap analysis, and set objectives for the assessment.)
2. Determine the needs assessment design (evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of methods)
3. Collect data (through a variety of methods: interviews, surveys, document reviews, etc)
4. Analyze data (conduct qualitative/quantitative analyses and determine some potential solutions or recommendations)
5. Provide feedback (disseminate by writing reports or making oral presentations.

Adult Learning Theory (Andragogy)

motivated to learn when they have needs and interests that learning can satisfy, oriented to learning that is life-centered, experience is the richest source of learning for adults, self-directed learners, education considers individual differences as people age such as differences in time, place, and pace of learning. Allow learners to be a part of the decision making in the planning of learning and ensure training is relevant. Problem-centered rather than content-oriented.

ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) Motivation Model

compilation of guidelines from many motivation theories. Causes of motivation may be either extrinsic or intrinsic. The intent of the model is to provide learners with the necessary time and effort to acquire new knowledge and skills.

Attention

(Application of the Motivational Categories)
Capture the learners' interest
Maintain their attention

Relevance

(Application of the Motivational Categories)
Know the learners' needs
Provide learners with opportunities to match activities that match their motives for learning.
Tie the instruction to learners' past experiences

Confidence

(Application of the Motivational Categories)
Build positive expectations of learning
Provide methods for learning to achieve success in mastery of knowledge and skill.

Satisfaction

(Application of the Motivational Categories)
Provide reinforcement to learners' successes
Encourage use of new knowledge and skills.

Gagne's Theory of Instruction

presents a comprehensive view of instruction. He identifies categories of learning: a) verbal information, b) cognitive strategies, c) intellectual skills, d) motor skills, and e) attitudes.

Bloom's Taxonomy

relates to the classification of learning objectives developed for learners. Learning in the cognitive domain should apply the higher order processes instead of lower order objectives that are traditionally seen. (Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation)

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

each level of needs must be met before the individual can move to the next levels. (Physiological Needs - food/water/warmth, Safety Needs - security/safety, Needs of Love - sense of belonging, Esteem - status/achievement, Self-Actualization - personal fulfillment)

All Teaching Strategies

lecture, brainstorming, case studies, coaching, group or cooperative learning, debates, demonstrations, discussion, drills, guest speakers, panel, simulations and games, role playing, problem solving.

Three Primary Reasons that Training Must be Evaluated

1. to justify the existence of the training and its contribution to the organization or participants, 2. to determine whether to continue the training program, and 3. to collect information on how to improve the training.

Levels of Training

Level 1 - Reaction - participants' feelings
Level 2 - Learning - extent to which participants change attitudes, improve knowledge or competencies, and/or increase skills
Level 3 - Behavior - extent to which participants are employing the skills on the job.
Level 4 - Results - effects on the organization

Expertise Shared with the Client

health education and health promotion information
program assessment, planning and evaluation skills
health education resources and materials
professional guidance on health-related procedures

internal consultant

informally advising colleagues within an agency. acts as a resource person who responds to information requests and organizes materials.

external consultant

outside of the agency, more formal. requires a contract between the consultant and the client and the services provided are more technical assistance or process-oriented.

Steps in Formal Consulting

Assessment of the clients' needs
Reports or suggestions for action
Implementation of agreed-upon actions
Evaluation of the suggested actions
Final reporting of results.

Benefits of Partnering

Increasing credibility beyond individual organizations
leveraging or maximizing resources
improving the reach to the community
increasing broad support for an effort
minimizing the duplication of efforts

Informed Consent

people are given sufficient information about a project, program, or medical procedure to make an informed decision about whether or not to participate. Typically should have: Information about the program - (nature and purpose), procedure or research project; the individuals' roles or responsibilities - (alternative programs or procedures that would accomplish the same results); the risks and benefits to participation - (possible discomfort); and voluntary agreement - (option of discontinuing).

Positively Skewed

a distribution with a higher number of low scores

Negatively Skewed

the outlaying score is very low and contains more high scores than low

Cohort

A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit.

Mutually Exclusive

if they cannot occur at the same time. An example is tossing a coin once, which can result in either heads or tails, but not both.

Exhaustive

At least one of the outcomes must happen.

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