the series of interrelated events that present and resolve a conflict
Three Types of Plot Development
► Via Flashback
► In medias res (Latin for "in the midst of things" The story starts in the middle of the action without exposition.)
the total environment for a work of fiction including time period (such as 1890's), the place (downtown Jacksonville, OR), and the historical milieu (such as during the Civil War)
the problem or struggle in the story that triggers the action. (Note: Without conflict there is no plot. There is nothing to overcome; there is nothing to think or work through, etc.)
Two Types of Conflict
External or Internal
Man vs Man
(sometimes called "Human vs Human" or "Person vs Person") One character in the story has a problem/ struggles with one or more other characters
Man vs Society
A character has a problem with some element in society: the school, the law, the social customs, the accepted way of doing things, etc
Man vs Himself
A character has a problem deciding what to do in a certain situation/or has a struggle within his character
Man vs Nature
A character has a problem with the natural environment: heat, cold, storm, tornado, an avalanche, etc
Point of View
The position from which a story is presented by the author
the story is told by one of the characters referred to as "I"
Limited Third Person
tells only what a single character can see and experience and refers to him as "He" or "Walter"
the narrator reveals the thoughts, feelings and actions of many characters (Sometimes called "camera" point of view)
are those who undergo important internal change during the story. (If a character seems real to you and by the end of the work, you care what happens to the character, it is likely a round character.)
are those who do not change from the beginning of the story to the end
the main character or hero of the story
the person or thing working against the protagonist, or hero of the work
Hinting or giving clues of what is to come later in the story
is a person, place, a thing or event used to represent something else. Ex: The dove is a symbol of peace in literature.
the overall feeling, or effect created by the writer's use of words. The tone might be humorous, suspenseful, serious, satiric, etc.
Using a word or phrase or story to mean the opposite of its literal or normal meaning
occurs when the reader or audience sees a character's mistakes, but the character does not
the writer says one thing and means another: (can be sarcastic)
there is a great difference between the expected result of a particular action and the result
a reference to something generally familiar such as famous people, historical facts, legends, the Bible or classic literature. (Bob was having an "inside the belly of the whale" moment.)
a comparison of two unlike things in which no use of a comparison word is used.
is a comparison of two unlike things using the word like or as.
is a literary device in which the author speaks of or describes an animal, object, or idea as if it were a person
is a story in which people, things, and actions represent/symbolize an idea or a generalization about life; allegories often have a strong moral or lesson. An allegorical story has two meanings: a literal one and a symbolic one
describes a character "getting what he deserves" in the end, especially if what he deserves is punishment. The purest form of poetic justice is when one character plots against another but ends up being caught in his/her own trap
a character that serves by contrast to highlight or emphasize the opposing traits in another character. (The cowardly character operates a foil to the brave hero in many stories.)
a "false name" or alias used by a writer desiring not to use his/her real name. Sometimes called a "nom de plume" or a pen name, pseudonyms have been popular several reasons.
The insight or general idea about life that the writer wishes to express