Sub-cellular non living particle
Outer protein coat of a virus
PHage reproductive cycle that ends in death of cell; named for when the cell/bacteria lyses(breaks open)
Phage reproduction cycle in which the cell replicates the phage genome without destroying itself
A virus that infects bacteria
Integrated viral DNA which never leaves host's genome
RNA animal virus with most complicated reproductive cycles; has an enzyme which turns RNA into DNA
no nuclues, nuclear envelope, ER, and GA
shrink away frrom cell wall
replacement for nucleus
smaller rings of DNA
oxidize inorganic substances
use light for energy but must obtain carbon in organic form
must consume organic molecules for both energy and carbon.
uses oxygen but can also grow by fermentation
poisoned by oxygen
use organic molecules other than oxygen to accept electrons
secreted by a prokaryote that produces symptoms even with abscence of prokaryote
toxic component of outer membrane of gram negative bacteria, released when bacteria die
organisms that survive in extreme environments
live in very hot environments
live in very salty environments
ecological relationsip between two different species that live together in direct contact
one benefits, the other is not effected
one benefits, the other is harmed
Asexual reproduction in prokaryotes
the direct transfer of DNA between two bacterial cells that are temporarily joined a sex pilus.
modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA
the process of transfering genetic material from one cell to another by a plasmid or bacteriophage
the simplest collection of matter that can live, the basic unit of structure and function
Eggs are just one of these; the human's egg is the largest.
the membrane-enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells
semi-fluid, jellylike substance inside all cells in which subcellular components are suspended
cell for protists, fungi, animals, and plants; has a nucleus with DNA, membrane-enclosed organelles in cytoplasm, (bigger)
cell type for bacteria and archaea; DNA is in nucleoid
the non-membrane-enclosed region in a prokaryotic cell where the cell's DNA is located
the interior of the cell;
in eukaryotic cells, it is the region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane that suspends its organelles
the organelle that controls the cell's activities, has a double membrane, contains DNA, has pores that allow material to flow in/out, attached to ER
the double membrane, each a lipid bilayer, that encloses the nucleus and separates its contents from the cytoplasm
material consisting of DNA and proteins; visible in a dividing cell as individual condensed chromosomes
non-membranous structure within the nucleus which functions in rRNA (→ribosomes) synthesis
complexes that make proteins; some free in cytosol, others bound to the outside of the rough ER (and/or nuclear envelope)
the collective membranes of the eukaryotic cell that regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell, all related through direct physical continuity or by the transfer of membrane segments as tiny vesicles
small sacs made of membrane
ER (endoplasmic reticulum)
network of membranes and membranous sacs and tubes that separates the lumen (cavity)/cisternal space from the cytosol, continuous with the nuclear envelope; has two distinct though connect regions
region of ER that lacks ribosomes; functions in metabolic processes, like synthesis of lipids/steroids, metabolism of carbs, detox of drugs and poisons (esp. in liver), and storage of calcium ions
region of ER that has ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane; these ribosomes make proteins
organelle active in synthesis, modification, sorting, and secretion of ER products
the small sacs made of membrane in the vicinity of the Golgi apparatus that transfer products between the Golgi and the ER (and other structures of the endomembrane system) (move material around cell)
membranous sac containing digestive enzymes; mixes with food vacuoles and enzymes digest the food, breaks down damaged organelles
the process of engulfing smaller organisms or food particles (lysosome taking a solid in)
ex/ microphages (a type of white blood cell) engulf and destroy bacteria
large vesicle, from ER and golgi apparatus, that possess many functions, like storage of food, pigments, and poison (*'central' in plant cells) and pumping water out ('contractile' - ex/ protists)
organelle (in animals and plants--all eukaryotic cells) that converts the chemical energy in foods to chemical energy in ATP using cellular respiration; has a double membrane, DNA, and ribosomes; can grow and reproduce on its own within the cell
organelle in plants and algae that is the site of photosynthesis, converts solar energy to chemical energy; has a double membrane, DNA, and ribosomes; can grow and reproduce on its own within the cell; contains cholorophyll
the infoldings of a mitochondria's inner membrane, creating a large surface area for more cellular respiration
family of closely related plant organelles;
ex: chloroplasts, amylosplasts (colorless storage of starch), chromoplasts (orange and yellow hues in fruits/flowers)
network of fibers (tracks) extending throughout the cytoplasm that functions in cell structural support and motility (cell and organelle movement); composed of three kinds of fibers: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules
thickest/largest type of fiber that makes up the cytoskeleton that are tracks for motor protein; hollow, made from globular protein tubulin (α and β tubulin), can grow by adding more tubulin dimers
thinnest/smallest type of fiber that makes up the cytoskeleton; made from twisted double chain of globular protein actin; bears tension/pressure, for cell shape and motility
microtubule-containing extension that projects from some cells, just one or a few per cell; undulates, moving the cell in the same direction as its axis (like a fish tail)
microtubule-containing extensions that projects from some cells; back-and-forth motion that moves cell in a direction perpendicular to its axis (like oars)
extracellular structure of plant cells encloses and protects the plant cell, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water; composed of cellulose
the most abundant glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of most animal cells, which forms strong fibers outside the cells; 40% of total human body protein
protein with covalently bonded carbohydrate, usually in short chains of sugar
The movement of a substance across a cell membrane, with an expenditure of energy, against its concentration or electrochemical gradient; mediated by specific transport proteins.
Having both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophobic region.
A channel protein in the plasma membrane of a plant, animal, or microorganism cell that specifically facilitates osmosis, the diffusion of water across the membrane.
A region along which the density of a chemical substance increases or decreases.
The spontaneous movement of a substance down its concentration gradient, from a region where it is more concentrated to a region where it is less concentrated.
The diffusion gradient of an ion, which is affected by both the concentration difference of the ion across a membrane (a chemical force) and the ion's tendency to move relative to the membrane potential (an electrical force).
Cellular uptake of biological molecules and particulate matter via formation of new vesicles from the plasma membrane.
The cellular secretion of biological molecules by the fusion of vesicles containing them with the plasma membrane.
The spontaneous passage of molecules or ions across a biological membrane with the assistance of specific transmembrane transport proteins.
Limp. Lacking in stiffness or firmness, as in a plant cell in surroundings where there is no tendency for water to enter the cell.
A transmembrane protein channel that opens or closes in response to a particular stimulus.
A lipid with covalently attached carbohydrate(s).
A protein with one or more carbohydrates covalently attached to it.
Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to lose water.
Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to take up water.
Typically a transmembrane protein with hydrophobic regions that extend into and often completely span the hydrophobic interior of the membrane and with hydrophilic regions in contact with the aqueous solution on either side of the membrane (or lining the channel in the case of a channel protein).
A transmembrane protein channel that allows a specific ion to flow across the membrane down its concentration gradient.
Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, has no effect on the passage of water into or out of the cell.
The difference in electrical charge (voltage) across a cell's plasma membrane due to the differential distribution of ions. affects the activity of excitable cells and the transmembrane movement of all charged substances.
Regulation of solute concentrations and water balance by a cell or organism.
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane with no expenditure of energy.
A protein loosely bound to the surface of a membrane or to part of an integral protein and not embedded in the lipid bilayer.
A type of endocytosis in which large particulate substances are taken up by a cell. It is carried out by some protists and by certain immune cells of animals (in mammals, mainly macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells).
A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, regulating the cell's chemical composition.
A phenomenon in walled cells in which the cytoplasm shrivels and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall; occurs when the cell loses water to a hypertonic environment.
An active transport protein in a cell membrane that uses ATP to transport hydrogen ions out of a cell against their concentration gradient, generating a membrane potential in the process.
The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in; enables a cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances.
A property of biological membranes that allows them to regulate the passage of substances.
The ability of a solution surrounding a cell to cause that cell to gain or lose water.
A transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely related substances to cross the membrane.
Swollen or distended, as in plant cells. (A walled cell becomes turgid if it has a greater solute concentration than its surroundings, resulting in entry of water.)