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actions that society takes collectively to ensure that the conditions in which people can be healthy can occur defines

public health

eating wisely, wearing a safety belt, and visiting a physician are examples of

personal health activities

the beginning of government's major involvement in social issues, including health, was marked by the

social security act of 1935

community health concerns of the 21st century include

lifestyle diseases, environmental problems, health care delivery (ALL OF THE ABOVE)

the first professional preparation program for health educators began during which period of the twentieth century?

the 1920s (1922)

the goal of the Hill-Burton Act in 1946 was to enhance the quality of

hospitals

communicable diseases remain a concern in the 21st century because they are the primary cause for

days missed from work and school

the organization in the US with the main responsibility for improving health is

the department of health and human services

john snow's removal of a drinking water pump handle in 1854 in London, stopped a

cholera epidemic

the Shattuck report marked the beginning of the

modern era of public health (1850)

the economically disadvantaged generally uses what point of entry into the health care system?

the emergency department

the man credited with successfully demonstrating the process of vaccination as a protection against smallpox, in 1796, was

Dr. Edward Jenner

the federal government's approach to public health issues in the US during nineteenth century could be characterized as one of

"hands off" laissez faire

the modern era of public health began in

1850

the germ theory of disease was proposed in 1862 by

louis pasteur

the public health service grew out of what earlier organization?

marine hospital service

t/f a community is a group of people who have common characteristics

true

t/f the medicare and medicaid bills passed by congress in 1965 were amendments to the social security act of 1935.

true

t/f medicaid is a program that primarily assists in the payment of medical bills for the elderly

false

t/f the ability of the health care system to prevent, protect against, quickly respond to, and recover from health emergencies defines medical preparedness

true

agencies that are funded primarily through tax dollars are referred to as

governmental agencies

the secretary of health and human services is

appointed by the President

which agency maintains records, analyzes disease trends, and publishes epidemiological reports on all types of diseases?

centers for disease control and prevention

which agency is a leading medical research center, and the federal focal point for medical research in the US?

national institute of health

an example of a quasi-governmental health organization is

the national science foundation

nongovernmental health agencies are funded primarily by

private donations

most voluntary health agencies exist at the

local, state, and national levels

the mission of professional health organizations is to

promote high standards of professional practice for their specific professions

the main reason for corporate involvement in community health is due to

the provision of health care benefits to employees

the largest and most visible international health agency is the

world health organization

the food and drug administration sets health and safety standards for all

food, cosmetics, drugs (ALL OF THE ABOVE)

inspection of restaurants is the task of the

local health department

one of the world health organization's most noteworthy achievements was helping to eradicate smallpox (1967)

true

t/f the superfund legislation was enacted to deal wit the cleanup of hazardous substances in the environment

true

t/f the core functions of public health are utilized by state health agencies

true

t/f the american red cross is classified as a quasi-governmental health organization

true

an epidemic curve depicting a distribution of cases traceable to multiple sources of exposure is a

propagated epidemic curve

a probability statement about the association between a particular disease and a specific risk factor is

an odds ratio

when using criteria of causation, the criterion that addresses the issue of whether the associate has been reported in a variety of people, exposed in a variety of settings, and can have repeatable results by other researchers is

consistency

when using criteria of causation, the criterion that asks if the disease or health problem associated with the exposure is the only one is

specificity

epidemiology is sometimes referred to as

population medicine

an outbreak of disease over a wide geographic region is a

pandemic

the number of events that occur in a given population in a given period of time is a

rate

morbidity rates measure

sickness

the book, published annually, that is the standard summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the US is

the statistical abstract of the US

the national health survey that is a state-based telephone survey of the civilian, non-institutional, adult population that seeks to ascertain the prevalence of high-risk behaviors is the

behavioral risk factor surveillance system

studies that seek to describe the extent of disease in regard to person, time, and place are

descriptive studies

the practice of assigning subjects to treatments or control groups in a completely random manner is

randomization

t/f a primary care physician is concerned with the course of a disease in an individual, while an epidemiologist is concerned with the course of disease in a population

true

t/f an endemic disease is on that occurs regularly in a population as a matter of course

true

t/f people afflicted with a disease are referred to as cases

true

t/f the rate of an illness in a population is hte natality rate

false

t/f a disease that lasts three months or less is a chronic disease

false

t/f the average number of years a person from a specific cohort is projected to live from a given point in time is their life expectancy

true

t/f vital statistics are statistical summaries of records of major life events such as births, deaths, marriages, divorces, and infant deaths

true

t/f an epidemiological study aimed at testing hypotheses is a descriptive study

false

appendicitis and poisoning are examples of

acute noncommunicable diseases

osteoarthritis and diabetes are examples of

chronic noncommunicable diseases

the capability of a communicable disease agent to cause disease in a susceptible host is

pathenogenicity

a pathogenic agent enters a susceptible host through a

portal of entry

tuberculosis and influenza are examples of

airborne diseases

when prioritizing prevention and control efforts, health officials use data from

leading causes of death, years of potential life lost, economic cost to society (ALL OF THE ABOVE)

health education and health promotion programs are examples of

primary prevention

to retrain, reeducate, and rehabilitate a patient who has already incurred a disability is

tertiary prevention

health screenings are important measures in

secondary prevention

inspection of restaurants and immunization programs that reach all citizens are examples of

primary prevention of communicable diseases

self-diagnosis and treatment with nonpresciption medication of the common cold is an example of

secondary prevention of communicable diseases

adequate food supply and getting regular exercise are examples of

primary prevention of noncommunicable diseases

t/f drugs, pesticides, and food additives are examples of chemical agents

true

t/f AIDS and tuberculosis are examples of chronic communicable diseases

true

t/f coronary heart disease is an example of a chronic noncommunicable disease

true

t/f in the chain of infection, a disease-producing agent leaves its reservoir through a portal of entry

false

t/f noncommunicable diseases have complex etiologies

true

t/f diseases of the heart and blood vessels are the leading cause of death in the US

true

t/f the ability of a biological agent to enter and grow in the host is pathogenicity

false

t/f the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of diseases before the disease becomes advanced and disability becomes severe is secondary prevention

true

relationships and structures within a community that promote cooperation for mutual benefit describes

social capital

an assumption one can make while organizing a community is

people should participate in making, adjusting, or controlling the major changes within their communities

an example of a community gatekeeper is

a politician, a teacher, a member of the clergy (ALL OF THE ABOVE)

when mapping community capacity, the least accessible assets are

potential building blocks

the final steps in community organizing/building include

looping back

a process by which an intervention is planned to help meet the needs of a priority population is

program planning

the means by which structure and organization are given to the planning process are

planning models

the first procedural step in health program planning is

needs assessment

program goals

are more encompassing than objectives

activities that will help the priority population meet the objectives and, in the process, achieve the program goals are referred ti as

an intervention or treatment

"when asked in class, 50% of students will be able to list the four principles of cardiovascular conditioning," is an example of a

learning outcome

the best known and maybe the most often used health promotion planning model is the

precede/proceed model

when implementing a health promotion program, which of the following is advised?

pilot test the program with people like those in the priority population

t/f community capacity is the characteristics of communities that affect their ability to identify, mobilize, and address social and public health problems

true

components of the coordinated school health program include

physical education, nutritional services, health promotion for staff (ALL OF THE ABOVE)

the group whose primary role is to provide coordination of the various components of the coordinated school health program is the

school health council

providing direct health care to students and staff, providing screening and referral for health conditions, and promoting health are all responsibilities of the

school nurse

numerous resources became available to help schools develop policies because of the requirements of

the child nutrition and wic reauthorization act of 2004

priority health content for a school health curriculum includes

healthy eating

priority health content for a school health curriculum includes

mental and emotional heath, tobacco, personal health and wellness (ALL OF THE ABOVE)

barriers to school health education include the

lack of time in the school year/day

the primary responsibility for the health of school-aged children lies with

their parents/guardians

which individuals are most often selected as the coordinator of the school health council

school nurses and health educators

most school-based health centers operating today are in

urban areas

because of the low priority given to health in many school districts, much of the health education is provided by

individuals other than health education specialists

a good health education curriculum provides

learning objectives and learning activities, possible instructional resources, methods for assessments, standards (ALL OF THE ABOVE)

t/f all school districts are required to have at least one full-time school nurse

false

t/f the portion of the school environment that encompasses attitudes, feelings, and values of students and staff is the physical environment

false

t/f things like indoor air quality, lighting, playgrounds, and school bus safety are part of the school's psychosocial environment

false

teenagers who become pregnant and have a child are more likely than their peers who are not mothers to

not get married or have a marriage end in divorce

approximately how many teenage girls in the US get pregnant at least once before the age of 20?

one-third

groups at higher risk of unintended pregnancy are

those living in poverty

the process of determining the preferred number and spacing of children in one's family and choosing the appropriate means to achieve this preference defines

family planning

title X was signed into law to provide

family planning services and help to all who wanted them but couldn't afford them

those served by family planning clinics funded the title X are predominately

poor

risk assessment, treatment for medical conditions or risk reduction, and education are the major components of

prenatal health care

a low-birth-weight infant is one that weighs less than

5.5 pounds at birth

the neonatal mortality period is death that occurs up to

28 days after birth

the leading modifiable cause of low-birth-weight during pregnancy is

cigarette smoking

which of the following is (are) advantages to breastfeeding?

help babies resist infections and other diseases; help babies vomit less often; improves maternal health (ALL OF THE ABOVE)

the majority of unintentional deaths (the leading cause of death) in children are the result of

motor vehicle crashes

t/f a medical doctor who specializes in the care of newborn children up to two months of age is a neurologist

false

adolescents and young adults are classified as those ages

15-24

a critical period in life, during which many health-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors are adopted and consolidated is

adolescents and young adulthood

most of the physical threats to health for adolescents and young adults stems from

behavior

the diseases that cause considerable morbidity in adolescents and young adults are

STD

approximately how many female college students reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse/assault in the past school year?

25%

the number one cause of death in the adult age group is

cancer

the best single behavioral change Americans can make to reduce morbidity and mortality is to

stop smoking

the racial/ethic group of high school students most likely to report current cigarette usage is

white Americans

the highest rates of smokeless tobacco use in high school students is in

white males

for adults, the greatest risk of injuries involve

motor vehicles

homicide and suicide rates for adolescents and young adults have

increased significantly over the last 50 years

exercise and nutrition program that help reduce the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease for adults are examples of

primary prevention

programs for adults that emphasize self, or clinical screenings to identify and control disease processes in their early stages, such as mammography, are examples of

secondary prevention

an increase in federal tobacco taxes is being used to help fund

the state children's health insurance program (CHIP)

t/f statistics indicate that the more education a person has, the less likely he or she is to use tobacco

false

in the US, people are considered older adults when they reach the age of

65

factors that affect population size and age include

fertility rates, mortality rates, migration (ALL OF THE ABOVE)

a comparison between those individuals whom society considers economically unproductive and those considered economically productive is the

dependency ratio

the largest percentage of elder income comes from

social security

in terms of housing, the largest majority of elders

are homeowners

the leading causes of death for elders are

heart disease, cancer, stroke, and CLRD

elder abuse and neglect are special problems for elders because they are

frail

housekeeping, transportation, and assistance with business affairs are examples of

instrumental tasks

eating, bathing, and toileting are examples of

tasks of daily living

walking, getting in and out of bed and chair, and dressing are examples of

activities of daily living

one who helps identify the health care needs of an individual and also personally performs caregiving services is a

care provider

a person unable to leave home for normal activities is considered

homebound

planned short-term care, usually for the purpose of relieving a full-time informal caregiver is

respite care

t/f once someone is an elder, it is too late to gain benefit from changing health behaviors

false

people of hawaii, guam, and samoa are referred to as

pacific islanders

indian health services is an agency within

the department of health and human services

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