Psych Test 8-13

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The Term 'child maltreatment' applies to children under the age of:

18

Impulsiveness and perseveration are the same in that they both represent:

an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex

The process of myelination involves:

nerve insulation

The hippocampus is a structure in the brain that processes

memory

The long band of nerve fibers that connects the brain's hemispheres is:

the corpus collosum

The ability to control one's impulsiveness appears to be directly related to the development of the:

prefrontal cortex

An example of a gross motor skills is:

swimming across a pool

When children demonstrate centration, they:

only look at one aspect of a problem

Krista understands that 4+6=10 but not that 10-6=4. She is displaying:

irreversibility

Vygotsky's theory includes the idea of:

young children as 'apprentices in thinking'

Erikson's stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years is called:

initiative versus guilt

When a preschooler judges his or her own skills, he or she:

tends to overestimate his or her own abilities

Emotional regulation develops due to:

both brain changes and learning

An example of antisocial behavior is:

Mark intentionally knocks over Simon's blocks

The four dimensions of parenting style are:

warmth, discipline, communication, and expectations for maturity

Parents who set limits, enforce rules, and listen receptively to their children are exhibiting the:

authoritative pattern of parenting

The television program most likely to have the approval of psychologists:

Sesame Street

In Freudian Theory, when a little boy develops sexual feelings toward his mother and becomes jealous of his father, this is called:

the Oedipus complex

T/F According to behaviorists, gender role distinctions are the result of nurture

True

The increase in brain size in early childhood is due to the proliferation of communication pathways and the ongoing process of:

myelination

Children who have witnessed violence, or suffered from extreme stress and unpredictable living situations may exhibit symptoms of------ such as startling at any noise, sudden anxiety, or displaced anger

Post-traumatic stress disorder

----- is the term used to describle the specialization of the brain so that one side of the body or brain is dominant for certain functions

Lateralization

The text defines ---- as all intentional harm to, or avoidable endangerment of, someone under the age of 18

child maltreatment

In the US, the leading cause of childhood death is:

accidents

The band of nerve fibers connecting the two halves of the brain is known as the:

corpus callosom

Failure to meet a childs basic needs is called:

neglect

Pumping a swing is an example of a ---- motor skill; buttoning a sweater is an example of a ---- motor skill

Gross/Fine

A child crying herself to sleep would be an example of:

perseveration

In most adults, the brain is organized in such a way that the areas of language development are located in the ---- hemisphere of the brain

left

Another name or term for ego-centration is:

egocentrism

The change in thinking 4-year old children go through which allows them to understand that just because one believes something does not necessarily mean that it is also true is called:

Theory of Mind

The text mentions two types of words that young children have a lot of trouble comprehending. One is comparisons and the other is:

Relationships

The child who says, 'I cutted myself' or 'I unremembered it,' is demonstrating a tendency called:

overregulation

The view of the child as an 'apprentice in thinking' was inspired by the work of:

Vygotsky

The special program developed to focus on structured, individualized projects designed to give children a sense of accomplishment was developed by:

Maria Montessori

Learning vocabulary by connecting a word to words and categories that are already understood is called:

first mapping

The internal dialogue in which a person talks to herself or himself is called ---- speech

private

In conservation problems, preschoolers make mistakes because they ignore the transformations that have taken place and focus on:

Appearances

Perceiving that there is the same amount of modeling clay as before when it is rolled out into a tootsie roll shape is known as:

conservation

By the age of three, ---- of all children has a television in their bedrooms

1/4

Freud called the period from age 3 to 6 the ---- stage

phallic

According to Erik Erikson, the crisis experienced by children during the play years is ---- versus guilt

initiative

Externalizing problems are to ---- as internalizing problems are to ----

impulses/inhibitions

Josh watched his best friend fall and scrape his knee. As his friend began to cry, Josh also started crying. An explanation for Josh crying is that ---- were activated in his brain

mirror neurons

An unprovoked attack on a peer is called ---- aggression, whereas aggression used to obtain an object is called ---- aggression

bullying/instrumental

Nevaeh noticed that a new girl in her preschool class was standing alone watching the other children, so she asked the girl if she would like to play with her. Nevaeh was exhibiting:

prosocial behavior

---- is a method of discipline that requires the child to stop all activity and sit quietly for a few minutes

Time-out

According to learning theorists, a preschool boy learns to behave like a boy because he is ---- for gender-appropriate behaviors.

reinforced

Food ---- is the primary problem underlying childhood obesity

quality

Haley's mother refused to buy junk food to help Haley lose weight. Her mother's actions ---- Haleys' preferences for junk food.

increased

According to some psychologists, children of today are overprotected from bacteria and viruses, so they often do not get the childhood diseases that strengthen their immune systems. Experts refer to this idea as the:

hygiene hypothesis

The key factor in determining reaction time is the level of maturation of the:

brain

We should use a ---- test to measure how much a person knows about a particular subject

achievment

The ability to master a certain skill is referred to as a:

aptitude

To diagnose emotional and behavioral disorders psychologists rely on the diagnostic guide called ---- which is published by the American Psychiatric Association

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Children with ---- have difficulties learning new skills and developing friendships because of a psychological or physical disorder

special needs

A test designed to see how well a child is reading in the third grade is called a ---- test

Achievment

Two crucial components of memory are ---- and ----

Storage/Retrieval

Vygotsky's view of how children learn focused on adult guidance as well as the childs ---- context

cultural

When i recall plans i have made for this weekend, i am ---- them from long-term memory and bringing them to my ---- memory

retrieving/working

An approach to learning a new language in which instruction occurs exclusively in the new language is called ----

total immersion

Teachers instruct children in their native language as well as in English with ---- education

bilingual

Federal legislation that mandates standardized tests to measure school achievement is called the ----

No child left behind act

Many preschoolers fail at simple problem soving because their ---- attention is inconsistent

selective

As children get older, processing capacity is freed for other things, as more mental activities become routine or ----

automatic

Beginning at about 7 or 8 years, the child becomes capable of concrete opereational thought and is able to grasp identity, reversibility, and other ---- principles

logical

The root of Piaget's concrete operational thought lies in the concept of ----

logic

Perhaps the most influential system in which the school-age child received his or her self-validation is the ----

peer group

Freud placed school-age children in the stage of ----

latency

Children who are aggressive-rejected are called ----

bully-victims

The basic framework for moral development has been most clearly described by ----

Kohlberg

The ability to compare oneself with others is called ----

social comparison

In Kohlberg's moral development stage 1, the most important value is ---- to authority

obedience

Rocky has learned to regulate his emotions and curb his impulses by exercising ----

effortful control

Two factors that can interfere with good family function anywhere are high conflict and ----

low income

According to Erikson, the developmental crisis children face in middle childhood is that of ----

industry versus inferiority

Children naturally try to deal with problems, a characteristic referred to as ----

self-righting

A critical characteristic of resilience is a childs ---- adaptation to stress

positive

Family ---- refers to how well the family nurtures its members and satisfies their needs

function

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