day-to-day changes in the air
how hot or cold the air feels
the water that falls to the ground as rain, hail, sleet, or snow
the average weather over many years
a warm current that travels north and east from the tropics
moves north from Antarctica, along the coast of South America, and on to the Galapagos Islands in the Pacific Ocean
plants that in an area naturally
the uppermost branches of trees that create a blockage in the sunlight so that the lower vegetation does not get any.
an area around the Arctic Circle that has short, cold summers and long, even colder winters; no trees grow here. Low shrubs bloom during brief summers. Moss and lichens grow on rocks.
where the climate changes according to the mountain's height
tropical wet and dry, arid and semiarid, Mediterranean, marine west coast, humid continental, subarctic, and polar
What are the 9 types of climate?
Weather is day-to-day and it is extreme changes, climate is the change over a long period of time.
What is the difference between weather and climate?
There is not enough sunlight or rain, the temperature is too low year round and there is not enough fertile soil.
Why do polar climates have little vegetation?
Geographers know climates are different because latitude affects temperature.
Low gets direct sunlight so it is hot,
Middle gets direct and indirect sunlight so it has seasonal changes which are hot and cold, and high latitudes get no direct sunlight so it is always cold.
How does latitude affect climate?
Moderate climates found in the middle latitudes because of seasonal changes and the temperatures hardly ever fall below freezing.
Which climate region has the most varied vegetation? Why?
Weather is measured primarily by _____________ and _________________.
(1) HOT AIR rises & moves from Equator to North or South Pole, (2) Cold air sinks and moves from N/S pole to Equator ::::> This mvmt helps keep Earth from overheating.
How does WIND keep the earth from overheating?
(1) Warm water from equator moves to N/S poles like in Gulf Stream (2) Cold water from N/S poles move to equator like in Peru Current :::::> These ocean currents help keep Earth from overheating
How does WATER keep earth from overheating?
The earth's rotation creates our winds and causes air to move this way. (See "How does WIND keep earth from overheating to answer N/S moving winds)
What makes air move in an east-west direction?
fast moving rivers in the ocean created by the earth's rotation; they travel great distances
What is an ocean current?
north or south.
Warm water from neat the equator moves ___________________.
flows towards the equator.
Cold ocean water from the North and South Poles __________________________.
cooler because water takes longer to cool (or heat) than land.
During the summer, land near a lake or ocean will be ______ because ______________.
warmer because water takes longer to heat (or cool) than land.
During the winter, land near a lake or ocean will be ___________ because ________________.
wind and rain storms that form over the tropics in the Atlantic Ocean. Winds at center travel >= 73 mph. They produce huge waves called storm surges that flood shorelines and destroy towns.
What are hurricanes?
similar to hurricanes but take place in the Pacific Ocean
What are typhoons?
swirling funnels of wind that can reach 200 mph. The winds and vacuum they create in their centers can wreck almost everything in their path. They effect a smaller area than hurricanes.
What are tornadoes?
a Pacific Ocean current that passes San Francisco carrying cool water from the waters off Alaska. In the winter the ocean current is warmer than the air so it gives off warmth and the air temp rises. In summer the current is colder than air so it absorbs heat and air temp falls.
What is the California Current?
Summer - SF colder St. Louis warmer
Winter - SF warmer St. Louis colder
because of California Current
Compare temps in San Francisco and St. Louis
As moist air blowing from the ocean rises up a mountain, it cools and drops its moisture. Windward side - cooling moist air (rain or snow); Leeward side - warming dry air (inland desert)
How do mountains affect neighboring climates?
A place where first European settlers of USA noted that the grass was high enough to hide a horse. This is a humid continental climate: humid summers with moderate to hot temps and very cold winters.
The tundra lies along this polar climate and has short, cold summers and long even colder winters. No trees grow.
In humid continental climates=moderate to hot summer temps but winters can be very cold. Regions w/ subarctic continental climates are much drier with cool summers and cold winters. Moderate climates have moderate rain and rarely fall below freezing.
How are continental climates different from moderate climates?
tropical wet and tropical wet and dry
Low latitudes have two kinds of tropical climates - what are they?
arid and semiarid
The two dry climates are known as ____________ and _____________.
They grow far apart in sandy, gravelly soil. Their shallow roots are adapted to absorb scarce water before it evaporates in the heat. Some plants have small leaves which lose little moisture through evaporation. Others only flower when it rains so that as many seeds survive as possible.
How have plants adapted to the dry climates?
Mediterranean, marine west coast, humid subtropical.
Med: most rain in winter summers hot & dry; Humid subtrop: has most precip, heat, & humidity; Marine WC : mostly mountainous climates cooled by ocean currents & support more forest than grass
Three climates found in middle latitudes.
Rain is moderate and temps rarely fall below freezing.
Three climates found in middle latitudes - what do all have in common?
Deciduous trees ___________ their leaves in the fall.
grasslands, coniferous trees have needles and cones, and large deciduous forest trees.
Describe vegetation in continental climate.
cold year round with tundra. no trees. short cold summers long colder winters
Describe polar climate
mosses, lichens, low grasses
plants in a tundra
much drier with cool summers and cold winters; grasses are shorter.
Less precipitation so deciduous trees then coniferous trees as it gets cooler and drier. As you go higher short trees, then low shrubs and short grasses. Then only mosses and lichen. At the top no vegetation.
How does vegetation change as you go higher in altitude in a vertical climate?