AP US Chapter 9: The Confederation and the Constitution, 1776-1790

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AP US history studyguide

disestablish

to separate an official state church from its connection with the government

emancipation

setting free from servitude or slavery

chattel

an article of personal or movable property; hence a term applied to slaves, since they were considered the personal property of their owners

abolitionist

an advocate of the end of slavery

ratification

the confirmation or validation of an act (such as a constitution) by authoritative approval

speculators (speculation)

those who buy property, goods, or financial instruments not primarily for use but in anticipation of profitable resale after a general rise in value

annex

to make a smaller territory or political unit part of a larger one

requisition

a demand for something issued on the basis of public authority

foreclosure

depriving someone of the right to redeem mortgaged property because the legal payments on the loan have not been kept up

quorum

the minimum number of persons who must be present in a group before it can conduct valid business

anarchy

the theory that formal government is unnecessary and wrong in principle; the term is also used generally for lawlessness or antigovernmental disorder

bicameral, unicameral

referring to a legislative body with two houses (bicameral) or one (unicameral)

Among the important changes brought about by the American Revolution was

the increasing separation of church and state

A major new political innovation that emerged in the Revolutionary era was

the idea of a written constitutuion drafted by a convention and ratified by direct vote of the people

Despite the Revolutions emphasis on human rights and equality, the founding fathers failed to abolish slavery because

of their political fear that a fight over slavery would destroy fragile national unity

The ideal of "republican motherhood" that emerged from the American Revolution held that

women had a special responsibility to cultivate the civic virtues of republicanism in their children

In the new state constitutions written after the Revolution, the most powerful branch of government was

a legislative branch

One way that American independence actually harmed the nations economic fortunes was by

cutting off American trade with the British empire

Attempts to establish strong governments in post-Revolutionary America were seriously hindered by

the revolutionary ideology that preached natural rights and suspicion of all governmental authority

The primary political obstacle to the formation of the first American government under the Articles of Confederation was

it had no power to regulate commerce or collect taxes from the sovereign states

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 provided that

after sufficient population growth, western territories could be organized and then join the union as states

Shays Rebellion contributed to the movement for a new constitution by

raising the fear of anarchy and disorder among wealthy conservatives

Besides George Washington, the most influential figures in the constitutional convention included

Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton

The "Great Compromise" in the constitutional convention provided that

there would be representation by population in the house of representaives but equal representation of all states in the senate

Antifederalists generally found their greatest support among

the poorer debtors and farmers

The crucial federalists successes in the fight for ratification occurred in the states of

Massachusetts, Virginia, and New York

Protestant Episcopal

new name for the Anglican church after it was disestablished and de-anglicized in Virginia and elsewhere

Republican Motherhood

the idea that American women had a special responsibility to cultivate civic virtue in their children

Consitutional Convention

a type of special assembly, originally developed in Massachusetts , for drawing up a fundamental law that would be superior to ordinary law

Articles of Confederation

The first constitutional government of the united states

Old Northwest

the territory north of the ohio and east of the mississippi governed by the acts of 1785 and 1797

Townships

one-square mile areas, thirty six of which composed a township, with one area set aside for the support of schools

Territory

the status of a western area under the Northwest Ordinance after it established an organized government but before it became a state

Shays' Rebellion

a failed revolt in 1786 by poor debtor farmers that raised fears of mobocracy

Large State Plan

the plan proposed by Virginia (Randolph) at the constitutional convention for a bicameral legislature with representation based on population

Small State Plan

the plan proposed by new jeresy (william patterson) for a unicameral legislature with equal representation of states regardless of size aand population

3/5 Compromise

the compromise between north and south that resulted in each slave being counted as 60 percent of a free person for purposes of representation

Antifederalists

the opponents of the constitution who argued against creating such a strong central government

The Federalist Papers

a masterly series of pro-constitution articles printed in new york by Jay, Madison, and Hamiltion

President

the offical under the new constitution who would be commander in cheif of the armed forces, appoint judges and other officals, and have the power to veto legislation

Bill of Rights

a list of guarantees that federalists promised to add to the constitution in order to win ratification

Virginia statue for religious freedom

legislation passed by an alliance of jefferson and the baptists that disestablished the anglican church

Articles of confederation

document of 1781 that was put out of buisness by the constitution

Northwest ordinance of 1787

legislation that provided for the orderly transformation of the western territories into states

Dey of algiers

north african leader who took advantage of the weakness of the articles of confederation to attack american shipping

Daniel Shays

war veteran who led poor farmers in a revolt that failed but had far reaching consequences

George Washington

unanimously elected chairman of the secret convention of demi-gods

James Madison

father of the constitution and author of Federalist No. 10

Federalists

wealthy conservatives devoted to republicanism who engineered a nonviolent political transformation

Antifederalists

group that failed to block the central government they feared but did not force the promise of a bill of rights

Patrick Henry

virginia antigederalist leader who thought the constitution spelled the end of liberty and equality

Alexander Hamilton

young new yorker who argued eloquently for the constitution even though he favored an even stronger central government

John Jay

frustrated foreign affairs secretary under the articles; one of the three authors of The Federalist

Massachusetts

first of key states where federalists won by a narrow margin over the opposition of antideferalist Sam Adams

New York

the only state to allow a direct vote on the Constitution

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