persons appointed by a head of state to head executive departments of government and act as official advisers
Tariff of 1789
Required most importers to pay a percentage of the value of their cargo when they landed it in the U.S.; shippers also had to pay a tonnage-a tax based on how much their ships carried
a certificate issued by a government or private company which promises to pay back with interest the money borrowed from the buyer of the certificate.
someone who risks losses for the possibility of considerable gains
Powers specifically given to Congress in the Constitution; including the power to collect taxes, coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, and declare war.
powers that congress has that are not stated explicitly in the constitution
Bank of the United States
Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
Rivals of the Federalists who believed in a smaller government based on state rights. Their rivalry sparked tensions with Federalists, creating a political party system.
Philosophy that agriculture and owning land is the backbone of the economy.
Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley
A principle by which one state, by granting another state MFN status promises to give it the same treatment given to the first state's most favored trading partner
American envoy-made treaty with spanish leaders that allowed us to use part of New orleans and lower mississippi for trade.
Agreement between the United States and Spain that changed Florida's border and made it easier for American ships to use the port of New Orleans.
Chief of the Miami who led a Native American alliance that raided U.S. settlements in the Northwest Territory. He was defeated and forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville. Later, he became an advocate for peace.
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
Undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800. The French began to seize American ships trading with their British enemies and refused to receive a new United States minister when he arrived in Paris in December 1796.
Alien and Sedition Acts
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.
Immigrants living in the country who were not citizens.
An illegal action inciting resistance to lawful authority and tending to cause the disruption or overthrow of the government.
Theory that a state should be able to intervene between the federal government and the people to stop an illegal action.
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution.
Justice Marshall was a Federalist whose decisions on the U.S. Supreme Court promoted federal power over state power and established the judiciary as a branch of government equal to the legislative and executive.
The power of a court to refuse to enforce a law or government regulation that in the opinion of the judges conflicts with the U.S. Constitution or, in a state court, the state constitution.
Bought New Orleans and all the French territory west of the Mississippi River from Napoleon for 15 million dollars. He was only supposed to negotiate for a small part of New Orleans for 10 million so Jefferson was upset when he heard about Livingston's deal.
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
United States explorer and soldier who(with William Clark) lead led an expedition from St. Louis to the mouth of the Columbia River.
United States explorer who (with Meriwether Lewis) led an expedition from St. Louis to the mouth of the Columbia River.
American soldier and explorer whom Pikes Peak in Colorada is named. His Pike expedition often compared to the lewis and Clark expedition, mapped much of the southern portion of the Louisianna Purchase
New England's merchants opposed the War of 1812 because it cut off trade with Great Britain. Critics of the war were mainly Federalists who represented New England. The Essex Junto was a group of extreme Federalists led by Aaron Burr who advocated New England's secession from the U.S.
A kind of legalized kidnapping in which people are forced into military service.
An order forbidding the trade in or movement of commercial goods; any restraint or hindrance.
Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain.
Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.
A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed fighting for the British during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
William Henry Harrison
Governor of the Indiana Territories who became a national hero after the Battle of Tippecanoe. The last Whig President, he was also the first president to die in office (pneumonia). He was the 9th president in 1841, he won the election because of his military success and his lack of a public stand on key issues.
Oliver Perry led a 1813 naval victory against the British on Lake Erie. Washington D.C. was captured and burned by the British in 1814. The Battle of New Orleans was a great victory for the U.S. in January, 1815, but it took place two weeks after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent had ended the war.
Battle of New Orleans
General "Stonewall" Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country.
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Era of Good Feelings
A newspaper term used to describe the two terms of President James Monroe. during this period, ther was only one major political party, the democratic-republicans; it was therefore assumed that political discord had evaporated.
John C. Calhoun
Representative of South Carolina that introduced a bill proposing the Second Bank of the United States.
United States politician who supported John C. Calhoun's proposal for the Second Bank.
United States politician who supported John C. Calhoun's proposal for the Second Bank.
Tax on imports for the purpose of raising money.
Taxes on products imported from other nations. Benefited the North because it allowed businesses to compete. The South did not like this because it was taxed on the goods it was buying.
"Runaway" or "Separatists", Creek (an Indian tribe) refugees in Florida. They took in runaway slaves and criminals from the US. General Andrew Jackson was ordered into Florida just to recover the stolen 'property' by Secretary of War Calhoun. In the process Jackson easily took Florida. Spain demanded the return of their land and the US agreed under the pretense that they could retake it at any time. In 1819 the US signed the Florida Purchase Treaty where Spain ceded Florida to the US if the US assumed private American claims against Spain.
Seminole leader, warned U.S. general to stay out of Florida but was defeated by General Andrew Jackson.
The seventh President of the United States, who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans. As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State who defended Jackson and argued that the true cause of the dispute lay in Spain's failure to keep order in Florida.
Spanish surrendered all claims to the remainder of Florida territory, drew the mexico border all the way to the Pacific, around northern border of modern Cali, US agreed to assume $5million in debts.
Alliance formed by Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia in an effort to suppress movements against monarcies in Europe.
Marked the beginning of a long-term American policy of preventing other great powers from interfering in Latin American political affairs. At the same time, by keeping the European Powers out of the Americas, the Monroe Doctrine upheld Washington's policy of avoiding entanglements in European power struggles.
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
First national road building project funded by Congress. It made travel and transportation of goods much easier because it was one continuous road that was in good condition.
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship. (1765-1815)
Wealthy, self educated industrialist that built an American engine based on the ones developed on Great Britain. Built the first the first powerful locomotive.
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
An American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged.
1799-1800 - Eli Whitney developed a manufacturing system which uses standardized parts which are all identical and thus, interchangeable. Before this, each part of a given device had been designed only for that one device; if a single piece of the device broke, it was difficult or impossible to replace. With standardized parts, it was easy to get a replacement part from the manufacturer. Whitney first put used standardized parts to make muskets for the U.S. government.
Samuel F. B. Morse
the inventor of the telegraph and morse code. The telegraph was important because it allowed for fast communication between areas, which helped with technological, societal progress. (mostly northern things). The telegraph leads to the formation of the Associated Press
An organization of workers formed for the purpose of advancing its members' interests.
People who refuse to do work because of an argument or disagreement with their employer over wages or working conditions.
Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. It removed seeds from cotton fibers. Now cotton could be processed quickly and cheaply. Results: more cotton is grown and more slaves are needed for more acres of cotton fields.
Plantation owners who held 20 or more enslaved people.
Owner of a small farm with four or fewer enslaved persons, and usually none.
A system of slave labor under which a slave had to complete a specific assignment each day. After they finished, their time was their own. Used primarily on rice plantations.
Enslaved persons were organized into work gangs that labored from sunup to sundown--- plowing, planting, cultivating, or picking, depending on the season.
Acted as the director of a work gang.
Famous black abolitionist that escaped from slavery who would later right a narrative of his own life that described his life. He promoted the abolitionist cause and drew the line where evil must be denounced.
Save codes were laws passed by southern slaves to keep slaves from either running away or rebelling. these laws forbade slaves to gather in groups of three of more. they couldn't leave their owner's land without a written pass. slaves were not allowed to own a gun. and unfortunately could not learn to read or write. they could also not testify in court.
A free African American who operated a wood-working shop in Charleston, South Carolina, was accused of planning an armed revolt to free the regions slaves.
Slave in Virginia who started a slave rebellion in 1831 believing he was receiving signs from God His rebellion was the largest sign of black resistance to slavery in America and led the state legislature of Virginia to a policy that said no one could question slavery.
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however.
Men who enjoyed the support of leaders from their own state and region.
Georgia native who was nominated by the Republican caucus(last caucus selection), as he was the favorite of the extreme states' rights faction of the party. But other candidates received nominations from state legislatures and won endorsements from mass meetings throughout the country.
An economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.
Agreement between presidential candidates Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams during the disputed election of 1824; Clay threw his support to Adams in the House of Representatives, which decided the election, and in return, Adams appointed Clay secretary of state. Andrew Jackson, who had a plurality (but not a majority) of the popular and electoral votes, believed he had been cheated out of the presidency.
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
After the 1824 election, part of the Democratic - Republican party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radicalness; they joined with the Whigs in the 1830's.
Candidates criticize each other's personalities and morals.