Bio 1406 Lecture: Chapter 5 (b)

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School: Northlake Community College Class: Biology 1406 Instructor: R. Hembree

make up of lipids

large molecules, don't include true polymers, not big enough to be macromolecules

lipids

grouped together because they don't mix well if at all with water

fat

contructed from glycerol and fatty acids molecules by dehydration reaction

glycerol

alcohol in fat

fatty acid

nonpolar component in fat, keeps fat from mixing in water

triacylglycerol

fat consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecules

triglyceride

word often found on food packages referring to triacylglycerol

saturated fatty acid

no bonds, as many hydrogen atoms as possible on bonded to the carbon skeleton

unsaturated fatty acid

has one or more double bonds, formed by the removal of hydrogen atoms from the carbon skeleton

saturated fat

type of most animal fat, solid at room temperature

lard and butter

examples of saturated fat

unsaturated fat

type of most plant and fish fat, oils at room temperature

olive oil and cod liver oil

examples of unsaturated fat

hydrogenated vegerable oil

unsaturated fats synthetically converted to saturated fat by adding hydrogen

reason products are hydrogenated

prevents lipids from separating out into oil form

diet rich in saturated fats

may lead to heart disease

trans fats

type of saturated fat contribute more to heart disease than saturated fats, created during process of hydrogenating vegetable oils

phospholipids

essential for cells because they make up cell membranes

steroids

lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings

cholesterol

common component of animal cell membranes, used to make many other steroids

polypeptides

polymers of amino acids

protein

consists of one or more polypeptides, each folded and coiled into a specific 3-D structure

amino acids

organic molecules containing both carboxyl and amino groups

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