Art History Mid-Term Chapters 1-9

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quizes for chapters 1-9

The word art encompasses many meanings, including process. Which of the following is considered an artistic process?
1. memorization
2. human capacity
3. a tapestry
4. sculpting
5. a building

sculpting

Marc Chagall's self-portrait I and the Village can best be described as a depiction of ____.

fantasy

An anti-commercial movement begun in the 1960s in which works of art are conceived and executed in the mind of the artist is known as ____.

Conceptual art

Robert Barry wrote:

All of the things I know
But of which I am not
At the moment thinking -
1:36PM; June 15, 1969

This is an example of a ____.

wordwork

The 19th-century painter Jean-François Millet wrote, "I try not to have things look as if chance had brought them together, but as if they had a necessary bond between them." Here, the artist is expressing his quest for ____ in his art works.

harmony

Henri Matisse and Romare Bearden both utilize ____ to create order and harmony in their versions of the Piano Lesson.

color and shape repetition

In his famous 1907 photograph, Alfred Stieglitz captures the juxtaposition of the upper and lower classes on board the Kaiser Wilhelm II ship. This photograph is titled ____.

The Steerage

African-American artist Faith Ringgold records the story of her life and dreams on a Harlem rooftop. Her painted memories are depicted within the framework of a(n) ____.

patchwork quilt

In Nighthawks, Edward Hopper's desolate scene of late night diners in a city café, the scene seems to be set in the period of the ____.

1940s

Zaha Hadid's Sheikh Zayed Bridge, connecting Abu Dhabi to the mainland, was heavily influenced by Arabic calligraphy and arches that mimic Middle Eastern ____.

sand dunes

Picasso protested the horror and brutality of the Spanish civil war in his 1937 masterpiece painting known as ____.

Guernica

Examining a work of art in its historical, social, and political ____ enables you to better understand it.

context

In Betye Saar's The Liberation of Aunt Jemima, the artist is protesting the use of Aunt Jemima as a(n) ____.

stereotype

Marcel Duchamp's Fountain is a readymade, produced from an upside-down ____.

urinal

Images painted directly on a wall or intended to cover a wall completely, such as José Clemente Orozco's Epic of American Civilization: Hispano-American, are known as ____.

murals

Judy Chicago's triangular installation called The Dinner Party was constructed to honor and immortalize ____.

history's notable women

The use of space and atmosphere in Max Beckmann's The Dream could be best described as ____.

claustrophobic

In Laurie Simmons' photograph Red Library #2, the perfect room and robot-like woman are meant to symbolize ____.

the dangers of too much order

The Roman Emperor Trajan's tomb is a(n) ____ designed to glorify his military victories; centuries later the French adapted this design for ____.

column; Emperor Napoleon

Suzanne Valadon's Adam and Eve subverts ____.

traditional negative Christian views of women

What civilization was obsessed with its idea of beauty, and developed mathematical formulas for sculpting the human body so it would achieve ideal perfection?

Classical Greeks

The 16th-century artist Leonardo da Vinci produced what is perhaps the most famous painting in the history of Western art. This painting is known as ____.

Mona Lisa

Glass sculptor Dale Chihuly's Fioridi Como, located in Las Vegas' Bellagio Hotel, is a 70-foot-long ceiling piece reminiscent of the shapes and brilliant colors of Venice's renowned ____ glass.

murano

Mexican artist Frida Kahlo is best known for her extremely realistic and often anguished ____.

self-portraits

In Four Marilyns, Pop artist Andy Warhol participated in the cultural ____ of the film star and icon Marilyn Monroe.

immortalization

Until modern times, art works have been primarily devoted to ____ themes.

religious

Located in Istanbul, Turkey, the ____ was built as a Christian church in 532-537 CE but was converted to an Islamic mosque in 1453 and now serves as a museum. Its ____ is especially wondrous, appearing to float on light streaming through its row of windows.

Hagia Sophia; dome

In art, a ____ is usually defined as a moving dot and is both the simplest and most complex of the visual elements.

line

From the Italian for "light-dark," what term is sometimes used in place of the word modeling?

chiaroscuro

In La Source, Prud'hon's nude figure is ____.

carefully modeled and three dimensional

A triangular glass solid that breaks down sunlight or white light into different colors is called a ____.

prism

The message or meaning in Helen Frankenthaler's amorphous abstract Bay Side seems to lie primarily in its ____.

color

The colors opposite each other on the color wheel are ____.

complementary

Art works that utilize closely related families of color seem ____.

harmonious and soothing

Impressionist painter Claude Monet was trying to capture the effect of ____ in his Haystack at Sunset Near Giverny.

optical color

Actual texture is primarily experienced through the sense of ____.

touch

David Gilhooly's Bowl of Chocolate Moose seems gooey and edible. It is a visual pun that employs the use of a technique known as ____.

trompe l'oeil

When an artist places one object in front of another to create the illusion of depth, it is called ____.

overlapping

In works with ____, the lines are completed by the viewer.

implied line

____, in which parallel lines converge at one or more vantage points on the horizon to create the illusion of depth, was highly refined by ____ artists.

Linear perspective; Renaissance

American sculptor Alexander Calder is known for his mobiles, which are excellent examples of ____.

kinetic art

Every Sunday, ____ suggests the motion of the characters by repetition of imagery that changes slightly from frame to frame.

Dilbert

One of the best ways to create the illusion of motion on a two-dimensional surface is by ____.

blurring outlines

When you look at a(n) ____ painting, your eyes are manipulated to see rippling movement and afterimages.

Op art

What inspired Picasso to create his groundbreaking painting known as Les Demoiselles d'Avignon?

African and Iberian art

The edges formed by the flesh and muscle in Edward Weston's Knees are best described as ____.

contour lines

Mark Tansey's Landscape depicts three-dimensional massive shapes on a two-dimensional surface, creating what is known as ____.

implied mass

Which of the following shapes can be considered a cultural icon?
1. all of these choices
2. Chinese yin yang
3. Jewish Star of David
4. Christian cross
5. Apple logo

all of these choices

In Martina Lopez' Heirs Come to Pass, 3, the primary technique used to create the illusion of depth is ____.

relative size

In Emily Mary Osborne's Nameless and Friendless, ____ visually connect and lead the viewer's eye around the composition.

gestures and glances

____ creates the illusion of roundness or three dimensionality through the use of light and shadow on a two-dimensional surface.

Modeling

Diagonal lines are often used to ____.

imply movement and directionality

Unlike pure, bilateral symmetry, ____ provides variety within an overall unified composition.

approximate symmetry

Leonardo da Vinci's Proportion of the Human Figure can best be considered an example of ____.

bilateral symmetry

Andy Warhol's grid-based composition, Ethel Scull Thirty-Six Times, exhibits ____ due to the multidimensional and varied views of Scull's personality and expressions.

variety within unity

____ is often a major design element in art forms such as ceramics, basketry, jewelry, and stained glass.

Radial balance

As in Robert Capa's photograph Death of a Loyalist Soldier, imbalance in a work of art can be used to capture a sense of ____.

movement

Palmer Hayden's The Subway represents a demographic and ethnic cross-section of the strap-hanging riders of 1930s New York City and thus demonstrates ____.

emphasis on variety

In Family of Saltimbanques, Picasso places visual emphasis on the seated woman in the painting through ____.

isolation

Content can be a powerful focal point in a work of art. In Edgar Degas' Woman Leaning near a Vase of Flowers, the focal point of the composition is the ____.

daydreaming woman

A good architectural example of rhythmic progression can be found in the ____ in the ceiling of the mosque at Córdoba, Spain.

arches

Count de Montizon's photograph The Hippopotamus at the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park is trying to communicate the ____ of the exotic animal by comparing it to the nine onlookers behind it.

scale

The device of ____ to create unity is reflected in the ages of the youth, their ethnicity, and their suggested bond of friendship in Delilah Montoya's Los Jovenes (Youth).

continuity

According to Polykleitos, the head of an ideal human body should be ____ of the total height of the body.

one eighth

The ancient Greeks developed the concept of the ____ because they believed that it created ideal proportions in architecture.

Golden Mean

If you superimpose a diagram of a ____ over a photograph of the East façade of the Parthenon, it is a perfect fit.

root five rectangle

Whether conscious of the mathematical basis of ancient Greek architectural designs or not, Michelangelo utilized their components when he painted the ____.

Sistine Chapel ceiling

In Welcome the World Famous Brand, the Luo Brothers portray an overcrowded composition which emphasizes ____.

the convergence of consumerism and globalism

In Kay Sage's I Saw Three Cities, most of the visual weight in the composition occurs in the lower half but is balanced in the upper reaches of the sky by ____.

a flowing column of drapery

Variations such as the use of complementary colors and the hazy double of the clear, detailed face of the dog contribute to make William Wegman's Ethiopia an example of ____.

approximate symmetry

In Wu Jide's River Dwellers, patches of white and well placed touches of color are responsible for the overall ____in an asymmetrical and essentially monochromatic composition.

visual balance

We can discern the proper size of which of the following objects in Magritte's Personal Values?
1. none of these choices
2. comb
3. goblet
4. matchstick
5. bed

none of these choices

Which of the following statements about the patriarchal figure in Viola Frey's Family Portrait does not indicate his influential status within the family?

Toys can be seen in the composition.

Although there is much variety amongst the characters in Archibald Motley Jr.'s Saturday Night, the overall composition is unified by ____.

a glowing red color field

The compositional unity in Thomas Hart Benton's Palisades derives primarily from ____.

curvilinear shapes and lines

When artists focus on the unity of ideas and meaning in their work rather than the visual and compositional elements, they are pursuing ____.

conceptual unity

Unlike two-dimensional compositions, three-dimensional objects such as sculptures often have ____.

actual balance

____ refers to a distinctive handling of elements and media associated with the work of an individual artist, a school or movement, or a specific culture or period.

Style

Oskar Kokoschka's frenzied brushstrokes in The Tempest are thought to mirror his own ____.

inner torment

Donna Rosenthal's male and female figures in He Said...She Said are implied by a suit and party dress made from ____.

pages of discarded books and newspapers

Compositions such as Barbara Hepworth's Two Figures are termed ____ because they make no reference at all to nature or reality.

Nonobjective

In Brancusi's sculpture The Kiss, the two figures are reduced to a simple block form, much like the ____ of Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque.

Cubism

Judy Pfaff's nonobjective painting Voodoo leads viewers to try to find subject matter in the work based on its ____.

title

The form of an artwork includes all of the elements that make up the composition except ____.
balance
2. subject matter
3. three dimensionality
4. texture
5. color

subject matter

The ____ of a work of art is everything that is contained in it.

content

The main narrative or subject matter of Barbara Kruger's Untitled: We Don't Need Another Hero is ____.

gender ideology

Jacques Louis-David said "To give a body and a perfect form to your thought, this alone is what it is to be an artist." Based on his statement, David was most likely a(n) ____ artist.

realist

____ is the study of the themes and symbols in the visual arts: the figures and images that lend works their underlying meanings.

Iconography

Roy Lichtenstein's Forget It, Forget Me! is an example of Pop Art that has the visual appearance of a ____.

comic strip

The underlying symbolism in an artist's depiction of an elderly man stooped over amongst leafless, snow-covered trees in the depths of winter is most likely which of the following?

The man is approaching death.

Bronzino's complex allegory Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time offers up such an iconographic puzzle that there is little doubt that he intended to leave the viewer with a sense of ____.

ambiguity

Willie Bester's collage Semekazi (Migrant Miseries) was intended to symbolize the ____.

oppression of South African apartheid

Jacques Louis-David was first the court painter to King Louis XVI, but by a twist of fate ended up as painter to ____.

Napoleon Bonaparte

One of the best ways to illustrate stylistic differences between works of art is to choose several works that have a ____.

common theme

In Robert Mapplethorpe's photography, such as Ken Moody and Robert Sherman, he drew the world's attention to what it was like to ____.

be gay and living in America

The setting of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec's The Two Girlfriends takes place in ____.

turn-of-the-century Paris

Context has a profound influence on style. Artworks are very much a product of ____.

their culture at a moment in time

____ refers to the portrayal of people and things as they actually are, with no idealization or distortion.

Realism

____ is both a very realistic portrait of rural life in America and an icon of American art due to its many commercial reproductions on cereal boxes, greeting cards, posters, and the like.

Grant Wood's American Gothic

The couple in Lichtenstein's Forget It, Forget Me! are not very realistic but they are clearly recognizable. The painting is therefore a good example of ____.

representational art

The artist Jacques Lipchitz said "Copy nature and you infringe on the work of our Lord. Interpret nature and you are an artist." Based on this comment, Lipchitz was probably not a(n) ____ artist.

realistic

In expressionistic art, the artist intentionally distorts colors and forms in the composition in order to achieve a(n) ____.

heightened emotional impact

Broadly defined, ____ is the art of running an implement that leaves a mark over a surface.

drawing

From the Latin for "blood," ____ is the name associated with an earthy red chalk color.

sanguine

To achieve the subtle tonal contrasts in his Portrait of a Woman, Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux created a hazy atmosphere through the use of ____.

soft chalk on coarse paper

Edgar Degas was one of the masters of pastel drawing in 19th-century France. In ____, Degas depicted one of his favorite subjects.

Woman at Her Toilette

Jaune Quick-to-See Smith's The Environment: Be a Shepherd is reminiscent of a ____ due to its simple forms and sketchy manner.

mental sketchbook

Many of the artist Chuck Close's unidealized portraits, such as Self Portrait/Conte Crayon, are based on a ____, which produces blurry photographic likenesses.

grid transfer method

After meeting Ms. Mary Lou Furcron, African American artist Beverly Buchanan's life and art have focused on ____, as seen in Henriette's Yard.

southern shack dwellers

The oldest known type of ink is India or China ink, made from a solution of ____.

carbon black and water

Pen and ink are used to create drawings, such as Jean Dubuffet's Garden, that are essentially ____.

linear

As in Giovanni Battista Tiepolo's Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, wash provides a ____ absent in pen-and-ink drawings.

tonal emphasis

____ artists are masters of the brush-and-ink medium. They have used it for centuries for all types of ____.

Japanese; calligraphy

With a drawing, the quality of line and the nature of shading are very much affected by the ____ of the support.

texture

The medium of brush and wash is more versatile than brush and ink, as seen in Leonardo da Vinci's Study of Drapery. It is so realistic that it is almost ____.

photographic

In its original meaning, a ____ was a full-scale preliminary drawing executed on paper for projects such as frescoes, stained glass, oil paintings, or tapestries.

cartoon

Which of the following drawing materials cannot be smudged or rubbed for a hazy effect?
1. chalk
2. silverpoint
3. charcoal
4. pastel
5. pencil

silverpoint

Dr. Seuss, famous for his children's books, worked for a New York tabloid newspaper as chief editorial cartoonist during ____.

World War II

Honoré Daumier's pen and ink drawing, The Three Lawyers, is a caricatured illustration of ____.

pompous, superficial lawyers

Rembrandt copied ____ but added some additional features to his own sketched version.

Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper

Michelangelo's Studies for the Libyan Sybil is a good example of a drawing that was meant to be used ____.

as a preparatory study for another project

The unforgiving medium of ____ was widely used for drawing from the late Middle Ages to the early 1500s, when it was largely replaced by the lead pencil.

silverpoint

In silverpoint drawings, the drawing surface must be coated with a ground of ____.

bone dust or chalk mixed with gum, water, and pigment

A form of charcoal was used by our primitive ancestors to create images on ____.

cave walls

The effects of ____ when each is drawn against a paper surface are very similar.

charcoal, chalk, and pastel

Claudio Bravo's Package is an excellently executed trompe l'oeil drawing that presents the illusion of a package wrapped in ____.

crumpled brown paper and string

The binding agent that powdered pigment is mixed with to form paint is known as the ____.

vehicle

The transition to oil paint in the 14th and 15th centuries was gradual. For many years, it was only used for ____ in order to give the paintings a high sheen.

glazing

Rembrandt used ____ to create his oil-on-board painting of the Head of St. Matthew.

impasto

When a painter's oil paint becomes too thick, he has to thin it with a ____.

medium of turpentine

Pop artist Roy Lichtenstein's portrait of George Washington is an oil-on-canvas image that most resembles a(n) ____.

comic-book hero

Contemporary artist Ed Paschke's Anesthesio composition has been "defaced" by ____, thus obscuring Lincoln's portrait.

abstract patches of neon-like color

____ is a mixture of pigment and a synthetic resin vehicle that can be thinned with water.

Acrylic

Helen Oji's Mount St. Helen's is an opaque impasto composition in the shape of a ____.

Japanese kimono

In Roger Shimomura's Untitled painting, he has blended traditional Japanese imagery with American cartoon characters and includes a self-portrait in which he is depicted as ____.

the Statue of Liberty

Contemporary watercolor is referred to as ____, made up of pigments and a vehicle of ____.

aquarelle; gum arabic

____ was the principal painting medium during the Byzantine and Romanesque eras of Christian art.

Gouache

True fresco, or ____, is executed on damp ____.

buon fresco; lime plaster

The fluidity and portability of watercolor has often lent itself to____.

rapid sketches and preparatory studies

Master graffiti artists almost always add "tags" to their artworks, which are ____.

stylized signatures

The Synthetic Cubists were the first to create papiers collés, or collages, in the early 20th century. The two major figures of this movement were ____.

Picasso and Braque

Miriam Schapiro's Maid of Honour is a paint-and-fabric construction that she labeled ____.

femmage

Ralph Going's Rock Ola is a contradiction of what we normally consider when we think of a watercolor on paper because the work is considered to be ____.

Photorealism

Gilbert Stuart's 18th-century traditional portrait of George Washington achieves a realistic likeness largely through ____.

modeling

In Giotto's 14th-century painting Lamentation, joints can clearly be seen that break the blue sky into numerous sections. This occurred because of the ____.

limitations of fresco

The ancient Egyptians and Greeks tinted their sculptures with ____ to give them a lifelike appearance.

encaustic

The traditional composition of tempera, rarely used today, consisted of ____.

egg, pigment, and water

____ was the exclusive painting medium of artists during the Middle Ages.

Tempera

In both tempera and oil painting, the surface of the wood or canvas is covered with a ground of powdered chalk or plaster and animal glue known as ____.

gesso

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