Metorology

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The property which primarily controls how much water can be present as a gas is

temperature of the air.

Relative humidity indicates the

nearness to saturation for the air.

As liquid water is evaporated into the atmosphere, heat energy is

absorbed by the evaporating water

During a clear, relatively calm day, the relative humidity will tend to _______ from sunrise to early afternoon.

decrease

Evaporation is a process which tends to keep temperatures cooler where it occurs. This is because evaporation

uses energy to change the phase of water instead of warming it.

The heat released when water vapor condenses to form a cloud or when liquid droplets freeze in a cloud

helps the cloud to rise higher.

The most common reason why dew forms on the grass at night is that

temperatures are coolest in the grass.

Relative humidity depends on the water vapor present in the air and the

temperature.

A convergence of winds near the surface is associated with cloud production because it

forces the air to rise

When water vapor condenses, the heat involved

is released to the nearby air.

Sinking or subsiding air cannot form clouds due to the

warming temperatures.

If the air temperature remains constant, evaporation water into the air will ______ the dew point and _______ the relative humidity.

increase, increase

The capacity of the air to hold water vapor

increases with an increase in temperature.

The two changes of state that are the most important part of the water cycle for the atmosphere would be

evaporation, condensation.

As the temperature of air is reduced to its dew point, which of these is most likely to occur?

condensation

Why does a rising air parcel cool off?

it expands

When the dry and wet bulb temperatures measured by a psychrometer are equal, all but one of the following is true. Which one is false?

A rise in temperature would cause condensation

The amount of water vapor in the air (by volume) usually does not exceed:

4 percent.

If air at sea level with a temperature of 27 degrees C is forced up a mountain slope and the air's dew point at the condensation level is 14 degrees C, at what elevation will condensation begin?

1300 meters

The moist adiabatic rate is different from the dry adiabatic rate because:

tent heat is released inside a parcel of rising saturated air.

If your environmental lapse rate is 7 C/km on a partly cloudy afternoon, then the atmosphere is said to be:

absolutely stable.

If your environmental lapse rate is 17 C/km on a partly cloudy afternoon, then the atmosphere is said to be

absolutely unstable

An inversion represents an extremely stable atmosphere because a parcel of air that rises into an inversion will become _____ and _____ dense than the air surrounding it.

colder, more

The atmosphere is most unstable when the temperature of the air ____ with height.

drops rapidly

These two conditions, working together, will make the atmosphere the most unstable.

warm the surface and cool the air aloft

The lapse rate of an air layer next to the ground is strongly influenced by

heating or cooling of the ground.

The buoyancy of a raising air parcel is greatly affected by

heat released if water vapor condenses.

During the process of adiabatic cooling, the temperature decreases because the air has

expanded to a larger volume.

The stability of the air layer close to the earth's surface can vary markedly. Much of this variation is caused by

Changes in heating or cooling of the surface

A cold air mass that is warmed at its base from contact with the warm ground will have its lapse rate

increased

Dew is most likely to form on

clear calm nights

It is raining on only one side of your street. The cloud above you is

cumulonimbus

You are flying in an airplane at 36,000 feet above sea level. You see lightning outside your plane window. The cloud that is close by is

cumulonimbus

Which of these is a mid-level cloud?

altostratus

The necessary conditions for hail formation include strong upward vertical motion and

large numbers of supercooled droplets.

The most common way for air to be cooled in order that a cloud may form is by

rising and expanding.

Why do clouds represent a source of heat for the atmosphere?

Cloud formation releases latent heat to the air.

Clouds which have extensive vertical dimensions are

cumulus.

the important difference between liquid droplets and ice crystals in a supercooled cloud is that ice crystals

grow much more rapidly

The cloud droplets in a cloud are formed by water vapor molecules and

condensation nuclei.

The conditions that persist along the West Coast of the U. S. that are conducive to fog formation are

moist air moving over a cold surface.

Clouds and precipitation form in the air primarily due to

air being cooled as it rises

The water content or volume of a raindrop is approximately ____ times that of a typical
cloud droplet.

1 million

Which of these clouds is least likely to produce precipitation that reaches the ground?

cirrostratus

Supercooled water is water which is

still liquid at temperatures below 0 degrees C.

Why are high altitude clouds always so thin?

Very little water vapor is present

Freezing rain (ice storm) or sleet occurs when

upper air is warm and surface air is cold.

Clouds are classified and named according to their altitude and

form or appearance

The most important process for cloud formation in the atmosphere is

cooling by expansion of the air.

Clouds, dew and frost all form because air has become saturated. This condition of saturation
is usually caused by

the air being cooled.

Hail is most commonly associated with:

cumulonimbus clouds.

When warm moist air moves over a cold surface, ______ fog may result.

advection

This cloud sometime produces mare's tails

cirrus

The ______ cloud may have an "anvil head."

cumulonimbus

Thunder and lightning are associated with the cloud.

cumulonimbus

A(n) _______ is a layer of dark gray clouds that produces precipitation.

nimbostratus

A halo around the Sun or the Moon indicates the cloud ______ is present

cirrostratus

The most common source of cloud condensation nuclei is

combustion by-products

Relative humidity in cities is usually ______ compared to rural areas.

lower

On which day of the week would someone living in or downwind of a city expect the least precipitation (on the average)?

Sunday

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