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Whitehead Chapter APUSH 5-8

The Great Awakening

religious rivavalry in the Congregationalist Church. Its purpose was to bring more members to the Church, it was headed by Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefeild.

Jonathan Edwards

American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in the Congregationalist Church, most notably "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God," partners with George Whitefeild

George Whitefeild

famous preacher from England who made a great impact in the Great Awakening in the colonies, partners with Jonathan Edwards

Anglican Church in colonial times

more of a club than a church

Samuel De Champlain

French explorer in Nova Scotia who established a settlement on the site of modern Quebec; only in it for the trade (fur, wood), not a to settle land

Antoine De Cadillac

Frenchman who founded Detroit, also governor of Louisiana

Robert De LaSalle

First European to sail down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico(for France). He claimed the interior of North American continent for France government including Louisiana and many rivers (Mississippi, St. Lawrence, and Ohio Rivers) Also explored the Great Lakes.

New Orleans

settled by a French company in 1712, later taken over by the Spanish after the French and Indian War, focused on exporting goods (such as furs)

Rights of Englishmen

Right to Property, Right to Trial (with a jury), and right to make laws (colonists feel these rights are being threatened by Britain)

Legislature in the British Colonies

Bicameral: 2 houses; House of Lords and House of Commons

Plantation economy

the economy of the Southern Colonies; entire economics of the south relies on tobacco, rice, indigo, sugar, and cotton plantations (but they had a very small merchant middle class that was looked down on)

What are the classes divided by?

Aristocracy of Wealth, not an Aristocracy of Birth

Slavery

mostly motivated economically; the plantations needed them to succeed financially

Slave Trade

North engages in the trade (make ships, sell them), but the South has the demand; 1/3 in the Carribean, 1/3 in the Colonies, 1/3 die on the way

Slave Code

a set of laws that formally regulated slavery and defined the relationship between enslaved Africans and free people; based off of Barbados's slave code; made because of the constant fear of a slave uprising

Amish

Of German origin, these people were originally Anabaptist and would settle in Western Pennsylvania and Eastern Ohio. Many today live the same way their ancestors did 200-300 years ago.

Mennonite

follower of Menno Simons, early 16th cent reformer who rejected infant baptism, eucharistic presence, and church organiations, emphasized pacifism and nonresistance

Mercantilism

an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought- the wealth of a nation depended on its gold supply

Navigation Acts

Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries. At first, they weren't really enforced in North America; a lot of smuggling happened."Is smuggling illegal? Yes. What happeneds? I don't know, why don't you try it and find out!" But later the Brits decided to heavily enforce them.

Social Mobility

not common in Europe, very common in America

Crown Colony

a British colony controlled by the British Crown, represented by a governor: Virginia, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, New York and New Jersey

Proprietary Colony

colony run by individuals or groups to whom land was granted: Deleware, Pennsylvania, and Maryland

Self Governing Colony

colony that exercises political authority over itself: Connecticut and Rhode Island

Life in Colonial America

rough, many didn't survive to adulthood "Where are all the adults? Dead. They're dead." Life expectancy was 45 years because of disease and poor diet

Whiskey

a liquor made from fermented mash of grain, used to barter

Rum

distilled from fermented molasses, smuggled "Who ever heard of 'Yo-ho-ho and a bottle of tequila?'"

King William's War

Small war (militia engagements) between French and English that had small battles fought in Northern New England.

Queen Anne's War

The second of the four wars known generally as the French and Indian Wars, it arose out of issues left unresolved by King Williams' War (1689-1697) and was part of a larger European conflict known as the War of the Spanish Succession. Britain, allied with the Netherlands, defeated France and Spain to gain territory in Canada, even though the British had suffered defeats in most of their military operations in North America.

War of the Spanish Succession

a conflict, lasting from 1701 to 1713, in which a number of European states fought to prevent the Bourbon family from controlling Spain as well as France.

Privateer

a privately owned warship commissioned to prey on the commercial shipping or warships of an enemy nation (legal pirates)

Treaty of Utrecht

1713, ended Queen Ann's War, transferred large areas of French territory in North America to English including Nova Scotia and Newfoundland

Asiento

Permisson granted from Spain to Britain to send enslaved Africans to Spain's American colonies.

The War of Jenkin's Ear

Robert Jenkins, British smuggler in Spain, is caught and the Spanish cut off his ear in 1731. Seven years later in 1738 the British used this as an excuse to attack Spain by taking the ear (in a jar) to Parliament. "Rum- good stuff that's also good for preserving your ear if the Spanish happen to cut it off."

Ft Louisbourg

Located on Cape Breton Island, it guarded the approach to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and was supposed to be impregnable. Americans beat the French here and capture it, but at the end of the war the English deal it back to the French (which leaves the Americans pissed off)

Ft Duquesne

French fort at the head of the Ohio River that Braddock tried to capture (he was killed in the retreat) and was finally blown up by the French in 1758, rebuilt by the British and renamed Ft. Pitt

Ft Neccessity

Flash point battle of French and Indian war in 1754 in western Pennsylvania. Led by George Washington a group of British soldiers went to speak with the French ambassador. Fighting occurred after French ambassador was killed by Native Allies, ultimately Washington had to surrender the fort.

William Pitt

The Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, and this is why England won the war.

Gen. Braddock

general with George Washington, not very good Indian-style, but very good at European style fighting, almost made it to Duquesne with artillery, but was ambushed by French/Indians, later died

Gen. Wolff

attacks Quebec (defended by French regulars), wins (major victory for England/America)

Treaty of Paris

Signed by the United States and Spain in December 1898, this treaty ended the Spanish-American War. Under its terms, Britain got all of French Canada, but the French there can still be Catholic

British War Debt

the English just won 3 wars, and now owed 145 million pounds sterling. They paid it back by taxing the American Colonies

American Indians

watched their land disappear; some tribes remained neutral, while others took sides (wanted to side with whoever was going to win) most side with the French

Cheif Pontiac

got a bunch of tribes together to take action against the British, uprising west of the Appalacian Mountains where forts were destroyed, settlements were burned (tried to kill every white person they could). Eventually defeated by Biological Warfare (the English inside Ft Detroit have small pox, so they trade their blankets and stuff via the French to Indians) and many of the Indians die

English Decree

there is to be no American settlements past the Appalacian Mountains (Americans feel betrayed-"We'll settle where we damn please!")

No Taxation without Representation

Americans are getting mad because the Brits are taxing them without having representation in Parliament; they say remember when King James was overthrown?

The Mollases Act

British taxed it because the Americans were making a lot of money on it, the Ameicans resisted so it was eventually dropped

exis tax

paid on the product before it's sold

ad valorem

finding the value of a product

The Sugar Act

direct exis tact on sugar or mollases: 3 cents per gallon

The Reinstation of the Navigation Acts

many ships off the colonies' coast ready to confenscare products, heavily enforced

The Currency Act

Britain won't accept the colonies' paper money, but the colonies don't have any British currency

The Stamp Act

Parliamentary act only enforced in the colonies (not in England), requires a stamp on all legal documents and items of consumption and any contract. The Brits are trying to proove a point, but the Americans are fed up-boycotts

Patrick Henry

Outspoken member of House of Burgesses who tells them that only the House can tax Virginians, not the British Government (this act gets passed and the Stamp Act is nullified in Virginia); inspired colonial patriotism with "Give me liberty or give me death" speech

Stamp Act Riots

looting, burning, killing in Boston, NY, and even Rhode Island

Stamp Act Congress

started by Massechusetts, held in NY (so more people could come), 9 colonies were represented with people like Ben Franklin

Stamp Act Repealed

1766, but they still say that they can controll lawmaking

Quartering Act

an act passed by the British that allowed British troops to live in the homes of the colonists (aimed at NY), Americans see it as military occupancy (which it is)

Townsend Duties

tax in the colonies for lead, paint, and tea. Americans keep smuggling (tea from Dutch): "Taxation without representation is tyranny!"

Sons of Liberty

A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.

October 1, 1768

British occupancy of Boston

March 5, 1770

Parliament repeals all duties except tea

Boston Massacre

British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British,and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.

Boston Massacre trials

John Adams and Josiah Quincy defend the British, they get out free, Americans were angry

John Adams

A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. He also defended the British in the Boston Massacre Trials. As a delgate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States.

Josiah Quincy

defended the British in the Boston Massacre Trials

Boston Tea Party

demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston (Sons of Liberty) who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor

Intolerable Acts

in response to Boston Tea Party, 1) Boston Harbor is closed until reparation is made for the tea 2) Massachusetts Charter of 1691 is revoked (town meetings are forbidden) 3) Boston is reoccupied with British troops (British are treating Americans like enemies)

Quebec Act

Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.

1st Continental Congress

Massechusetts is exclusively beaten up on by the Brits, but all the other colonies take offense. Massachusetts calls this together in September 1774 in Philidelphia, they meet and decide to meet again in the Spring

Paul Revere

American silversmith remembered for his midnight ride (celebrated in a poem by Longfellow) to warn the colonists in Lexington and Concord that British troops were coming (1735-1818)

Concord

Americans fighmass casualtiest Indian style; Britain has

Ethan Allen

in charge of the "Green Mountain Boys" in Vermont, helped capture Fort Ticonderoga from the British

Benedict Arnold

He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He lead an invasion of Canada. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.

Ft Ticonderoga

captured by Allen and Arnold who took their supplies

2nd Continental Congress

in session until the War is over, 1st time the USA's name appears; few were radicals wanting full separation from England, others were conservative and just wanted to avoid armed aggression; decides that the leader should be a military man (George Washinton); switches from defense to offense and asks Spain and Holland for help;

General Gage

was sent to be in charge of the colonies in the Intolerable Acts. He also planned to secretly attack Lexington and Concord at night, because the colonists were collecting guns at Concord and Samuel Adams and John Hancock were hiding in Lexington. Word got out of his plans and he is forced to retreat to Boston. Stayed in NY after he was kicked out of Boston by George Washington.

Hessians

German soldiers who fought for the British as mercaneries during the American Revolution

Moores Creek Bridge

Patriots win and keep British from taking over NC, so the Brits escape Charlestown and retreat, but are killed retreating

Reasons for No Separation from Britain

1) Treason
2) Loose support in Parliament
3) General American ambiviolence (not many care)

Reasons for Separation from Britain

1) Already at war
2) Claimed rights as an independent nation
3) Find allies in France or Spain
4) Confiscate property of traitors

Thomas Payne

with the help of Ben Franklin, writes "Common Sense", a pamphlet that becomes very popular with the people, not formal--> leads to declaration of independence

Tories

a person who supported the British cause in the American Revolution; a loyalist

The Declaration of Independence

an act of the Second Continental Congress(mostly written by Jefferson), adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were "Free and Independent States" and that "all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved."

John Locke

Wrote "1st/2nd Treatise on Civil Government" as justification of Glorious Revolution and end of absolutism in England. He argued that man is born good and has rights to life, liberty, and property. To protect these rights, people enter social contract to create government with limited powers (the executive, the legislative, and the judiciary braches). If a government did not protect these rights or exceeded its authority, Locke believed the people have the right to revolt (like they did in 1688 with James II). The ideas of consent of the governed, social contract, and right of revolution influenced the United States Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. He also laid the foundations for criticism of absolute monarchy in France.

Deists (closests to Christians)

Jefferson and Adams

Atheist

Ben Franklin

General Howe

Replaced Gerneral Gage; takes over Long Island; puts Hessians in NJ

Admiral Howe

has his troops in NY to help his brother

Lexington and Concord

The first battle(s) of the Revolution in which British General Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts. The Americans fight Indian style at Concord, causing mass casualties to the British.

Ticonderoga

Ethan Allen and Benidict Arnold suprised and captured this Fort on Lake Chaplain and gained gunpowder and artillery (without a fight) for the siege of Boston. The French entered the War.

Battle of Boston

Happened at Breed's Hill (hill over looking Boston, thought to be Bunker Hill). Americans got there first so they had the best position to fight in. Gen. Putnam was the Minute Men leader, they were low on amunition so he said, "Don't fire till you see the whites of their eyes." British were under General Howe. Americans retreated losing about 400 men while England lost about 1000 men. This battle proved to be the only one in the long seige of Boston. Washington then spent time getting more troops and positioned them in Dorchester Heights and Nook's Hill (areas south of Boston). Howe, seeing this, evacuated his troops out of Boston to Nova Scotia.

Quebec

Two pronged invasion of Canada by Benedict Arnold and General Montgomery. Once they were together, they decided to attack asap because many of their soldiers' contracts were going ot expire with the coming of the new year. So on the night of December 30-31st, they made an overnight attack where they lost. The Americans continued to besiege the city until the British got reinforcements.

Battle of Charleston

Attempt to take control of important Southern city where Americans were eventually forced to surrender

Long Island

George Washington and his army are badly beaten at this battle on August 27, 1776. Sorely outnumbered and surrounded at Brooklyn Heights, the 9,500 troops that survived retreated under cover of night across the East River to Manhattan.

Trenton

On Christmas night, 1776, Washington led 2,400 men across the Delaware River to attack the drunken Hessians who were sleeping. The Americans killed 30 of the enemy and took 918 captives and 6 Hessian cannons.

Princeton

American troops drove the British all the way back to the environs of New York City. American leader George Washington and British Leader was General Cornwallis- Americans won

Saratoga

After General Burgoyne's forces captured Fort Ticonderoga, American forces blocked paths of troops and removed crops and cattle to deprive the soldiers from food. St Leger tried to help Burgoyne by sieging Ft Stanwix, but later had to give this up. Burgoyne eventually retreated to Saratoga only to be surrounded by an American army nearly three times the size of his own, he then surrendered. Over 5,000 British soldiers were taken prisoner. It was an unexpected turning point in the war. It not only dramatically improved American morale, but also convinced the French to commit troops to American cause.

Brandywine

It was a battle of the Philadelphia campaign fought in the area surrounding Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania and the Brandywine River. The battle, which was a firm victory for the British, left Philadelphia undefended and the colonists in Valley Forge

Germantown

Howe's troops mostly at this place (north of Philadelphia). Washington try to force them out of Philadelphia again was but defeated again.

Monmouth

a place that Washington attacked the British, the battle ended in a draw, but it proved that Washington could contend with the British at full strength

Savannah

The British easily captured Savannah from the Americans in early 1778. This set the stage for the second bloodiest battle of the Revolution. The Americans and French allies attempted to retake Savannah from the British, however they were unsuccessful.

Cowpens

Location in South Carolina which was the scene of a classic battle, which marked the beginning of the American campaign under General Greene, to drive the British from the south. In terms of duration and actual troops engaged, it was a larger battle than Princeton, and its results-the destruction of an important part of the British army in the south-were incalcuable toward ending the war

Guilford Court House

site of the culminating battle in General Greene's campaign against General Cornwallis. Although Greene lost the battle, Cornwallis's forces were so depleted that he retreated tot he coast and from there moved to Virginia, where he ultimately met his fate at Yorktown.

Yorktown

the last major engagement/battle of the war. Washington's armies along with the French naval fleet under de Grasse surrounded British general Charles Cornwallis and received his surrender It ended major engagements in the colonies, thus putting an "end" to the war.

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