The Cell Theory
All living things are made of one or more cells, and cells are the basic units of structure and function in organism. Arise from existing cells.
Common Features of a Cell
cell membrane, cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, ribosomes, DNA
smallest and simple cells that lack a nucleus and carry out many specialized functions. Primitive.
Characteristics of Prokaryotes
can exist in a broad range of environmental conditions, some do not need oxygen to survive, others do. Some make their own food, and they all contain a cell wall and many have a flagella
Organisms whose cells have a nucleus
Nucleus (Eukaryotic Cells)
Organelle (Eukaryotic Cells)
"Little organ" Specialized structure that carries out specific functions in the cell
Cilia (Eukaryotic Cells, not in all)
short hair-like structures on the surface that propel the cell forward or move substances across the surface
Provides the internal framework of an animal cell. Holds the cell together and prevents the cell membrane from collapsing.
the cell membrane only allows certain substances to pass through
a lipid made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids. Has a polar "head" and two nonpolar "tails" Head attracts while the tails repel
The phospholipids arranged in a double layer. Ions and polar molecules (sugars, proteins) are repelled by the nonpolar interior
Marker proteins (cell membrane proteins)
advertise cell type
Receptor proteins (cell membrane proteins)
blind specific substances
Transport proteins (cell membrane proteins)
aid in the movement of substances in and out of the cell
Prokaryotic cells that contain DNA not enclosed in a nucleus and have some ribosomes in the cytoplasm. Primitive cells