Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

In the mid-19th Century, "total war" was identified by scholars as a separate class of warfare. In a total war, there is less differentiation between combatants and civilians than in other conflicts, and sometimes no such differentiation at all, as nearly every human resource, civilians and soldiers alike, can be considered to be part of the belligerent effort.

Total War

In the mid-19th Century, "total war" was identified by scholars as a separate class of warfare. In a total war, there is less differentiation between combatants and civilians than in other conflicts, and sometimes no such differentiation at all, as nearly every human resource, civilians and soldiers alike, can be considered to be part of the belligerent effort.

Young Turks

• Leaders of the genocide
• CUP Party
• Authoritarian regime
• Led by Enver, Talat, and Jemal

Cultural/Political nationalism

Conversely, nationalism might also be portrayed as collective identities toward imagined communities which are not naturally expressed in language, race or religion but rather socially constructed by the very individuals that belong to a given nation

Millet System

system of law that allowed seperate religious groups to govern themselves under their own system. Protected religious minority groups. First from of religious pluralism.

Provocation Thesis

• Violence due to Armenian treason - blame was to be put on the Armenians
• Killings were war casualties - brutality justified
Acts of Armenian genocide were provoked

Pan-Turkism

the term "Pan-Turkism" is used to describe the idea of political, cultural and ethnic unity of all Turkic-speaking people
• From political pluralism to cultural nationalism
• The nation was to be a specific ethnicity and religion
o Turks & Muslims

special organization

an Ottoman imperial government special forces unit under the War Department
• The killer bands of the Special Organization, often assisted by gendarmery units and even parts of civilian populations, would be deployed at strategic points
• Sent to slaughter mercilessly
• Principal instrument of the massacres against the Armenians

stepwise annihilation

• Labor battalions
o Conscription and isolation of Armenian men
o Brutal work conditions
o Torture and executions

realpolitik

politics based primarily on power and on practical and material factors and considerations, rather than ideological notions or moralistic or ethical premises.
Political power achieved through force and coercion

sickman of europe

"Sick man of Europe" is a nickname that has been used to describe a European country experiencing a time of economic difficulty and/or impoverishment.

responsibility to protect

• Responsibility of any state to protect it's population due to ear, insurgency, and crimes
• A state's inability or unwillingness to protect, shifts responsibility to international community despite state sovereignty claim
• Responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity

state sovereignty

• State having supreme, independent authority to rule as it wishes
• If state commits crimes against humanity, war crimes, genocide, ethnic cleansing etc. then sovereignty cannot protect them

Ralph Lemkin

• Coined the term: "genocide" in 1944
o Genos (greek) - race, tribe people
o Cide (latin) - killing, murder
• A systematic, coordinated, organized plan of mass destruction of a people
• Polish Jew who escaped the Holocaust
• Published books on genocide

Indelible/elastic groups

• Indelible
o Enduring - racial, religious, ethnic, national
• Elastic
o Social status or political beliefs
• Biological
o Sexual orientation, physical or mental impairment

ethnocide

• Elimination of a natural culture, identity forced assimilation, conversion, destruction of traditions, languages rituals, artifacts

democide

• Murder of own citizens
• Eliminate ascribed political, social groups
• Superior rulers vs. subordinate subjects
Democide is the murder of any person or people by a government, including genocide, politicide, and mass murder. Democide is not necessarily the elimination of entire cultural groups but rather groups within the country that the government feels need to be eradicated for political reasons and due to claimed future threats

ethnic cleansing

policy designed by one ethnic or religious group to remove by violent and terror-inspiring means the civilian population of another ethnic or religious group from certain geographic areas

"the planned deliberate removal from a specific territory, persons of a particular ethnic group, by force or intimidation, in order to render that area ethnically homogenous."

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set