Chapter 10 The Endocrine System Vocabulary

124 terms by Sigmakappa20 

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norepinephrine

noradrenalin

epinephrine

adrenaline

throtropin-releasing hormone

TRH

growth hormone

GH

antidiuretic hormone (ABV.)

ADH

antidiuretic hormone

vassopressin

prolactin inhibiting hormone

PIH

prolactin-releasing hormone

PRH

thyrotropin-releasing hormone

TRH

coticotropin-releasing hormone

CRH

Adrenocorticotropic

ACTH

growth hormone inhibiting hormone

GHIH

growth hormone releasing hormone

GHRH

insulin-like growth factors

IGF's

prostaglandins

PG

somatostatin

Delta cells are:

Insulin

Beta cells are:

glucagon

Alpha cells are:

parathyroid

PTH

interstitial cell stimulating hormone (aka= LH)

ICSH

luteinizing hormone

LH

thyroid stimulating hormone

TSH

adrenocorticoptric hormone

ACTH

follicle-stimulating hormone

FSH

pituitary dwarfism

hyposecretion of growth hormone results in:

diabetes type 2

insulin is produced but can not exert its effects on cells because of a loss of insulin receptors on onset gradually risk, family history and over weight

diabetes type 1

destruction of beta cells of the islets of longerhans and complete lack of insulin; onset usually abrupt

steriod harmones

soluable lipids of the cell membrane and diffuse easily into a target cell

protein hormones

bond to receptors of the cell membrane and the hormone is called the 1st messenger

cyclic AMP

a chemical that is the 2nd messenger in a two messenger mechanism of hormone action; formed from ATP and stimulates characteristic cellular responses to the hormone

receptor

a specialized cell or nerve ending that responds to a particular change such as light, sound, heat, touch, or pressure

pineal gland

an endocrine gland on the posterior wall of the third ventricle of the brain secretes melatonin

melatonin

a hormone produced by the pineal gland; influences sleep cycles

testes

endocrine glands that secrete the hormone tetosterone

testes

the male gonads that produce sperm cells

inhibin

a protein hormone secreted by the sustentacular cells of the testes and by the ovaries; inhibits secretion of folliclee stimulating hormones

progesterone

the sex hormone secretd by the corpus luteum of theovary and by the placenta contributes o the growth of endometrium and the maintance of pregnancy

secondary sex characteristics

the features that develope at puberty in males and females; they are under hormones but are not directly involved in reproduction examples growth of body hair and muscles

ovary

endocrine gland that produces the hormones estrogen and progesterone

ovary

the female gonad that produces ova

histamine

an inflammatory chemical released by damaged tissues as part of innate immunity; stimulates increased capillary premeability and vasodilation

anti-inflammatory effect

to lessen the process of inflammation; cortisol is the hormone that has this effect

angiotensin 2

the final product of the renin-angiotensin mechanism; stimulates vasoconstriction and increased secretion of aldosterone, both of which help raise blood pressure

renin-angiotensin mechanism

a series of chemical reactions initiated by a decrease in blood pressure that stimulates the kidneys to secrete the enezyme renin; culminates in the formation of angiotensin 2

mineralocorticoid

aldosterone=

aldosterone

a hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that increases the reabsorbtion of sodium and the excretion of potassium by the kidneys

glucocorticoids

cortisol=

cortisol

a hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex tat promotes the efficient use of nutrients in the stressfu situations and has an anti-inflammatory effect

mineralocorticoids

the hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex that affect fluid-electrolyte balnce; aldosterone is the major hormone in this group

adrenal cortex

the outher layer of the adrenal glands which secretes cortisol and aldosterone

diabetes mellitus

hyposecretion of insulin by the ancreas or the inability of insulin to exert its effects; characterized by the hyperglycmia, increased urine output with glycosuria urine

epinephrine

a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that stimulates many responses that enable the body to react to a stressful situation

norephrine

a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that causes vasocontriction through out the body which raises blood pressure in stressful situations

adrenal medulla

the inner layer of the adrenal glands secretes epinephrine

suprarenal glands

another name for adrenal glands is:

adrenal glands

the endocrine glands located on the top of the kidneys; each consists of an adrenal cortext which secretes cortisol and aldosterone, and an adrenal medulla which secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine

pancreas

an exocrine glan that secretes digestive enzymes for the digestion of starch, fats and protiens

pancreas

an endocrine gland located between the curve of the deudenum and the spleen

goiter

an enlargement of the thyroid gland often due to lack of dietary iodine

parathyroid glands

secrets parathyroid hormones

parathyroid glands

the four endocrine glands located on the posterior side of the thyroid glands

parathyroid hormones

a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands; increases the reabsorption of calcium from bones and the absorbtion of calcium by the small intestines and kidneys

calcitonin

a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that decreases the reabsorbtion of calcium from bones

T3

triiodothyronine

triiodothyronine T3

a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that increases energy production and protein synthesis

T4

thyroxine

thyroxine T4

a hormone secreted by the thyroid fland that increases energy production and protein synthesis

amines

simple hormones that are structual variations ofthe amino acid tyrosine

steroids

an organic compound in the lipid group; includes cholesterol and the sex hormones

peptide bond

a chemical bond that links two amino acids in a protien molecule

peptide

short chains of amino acids

releasing hormone or releasing factors

hormones release by the hypothalmys that stimulates secretion of hormones by the anterior pituitary gland

neurohyphpophysis

the posterior pituitary gland

adenohypophysis

the anterior pituitory gland

vasopressin

antidiuretic hormone

somatostatin

growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GHIH); produced by the hypothalmus

somatostatin

the hormone produced by the delta cells of the pancreas

somatotropin

growth hormone

luteinizing hormone

a gonadotropic hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that, in men stimulates secretion of testosterone by the testes or, in women stimulates ovulation and secretion of pogesterone by corpus luteum in the ovary

gonadotropin-releasing hormne (GnRH)

the secreation of FSH is stimulated by the hypothalmus which produces:

gonadotropic hormone (gonads)

a hormone that has its effects on the ovaries

follicle stimulating hormone

a gonadotropic hormone produced by the anterior pitutary gland that initiates the production of ova in the ovaries or sperm in the testes

prolactin

a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates milk production by the mammory glands

adrenocorticotropic hormone

a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol

thyroid stimulating hormone

a hormone sereted by the anterior pitutary gland that causes the thyroid gland to secrete triidothyronine T3 and thyroxine T4

growth hormone (GH)

a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that increases the rate of cell division and protein synthesis

hypophyseal portal system

the pathway of circulation in which releasing hormones from the hypothalamus circulate directly to the anterior pituitary glands

oxytocin

a hormone produced by the hypothalmus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland; stimulates contraction of the myometrium during labor and release of milk by the mammory glands

osmoreceptors

specialized cells in the hypothalmus that detect changes n the water content of the body

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

a hormone produced by the hypothalmus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland; increases the reabsorbtion of water by the kidney tubules and in large amounts causes vasoconstriction and is called vasopressin

negative feedback mechanism

a controle system in which a stimulus initiates a response that reverses or reduces the stimulus thereby stopping the response until the stimulus occurs again and there is for the response

protein

an organic compound made of amino acids linked by peptide bonds; 50 to 200 chains in these hormones

hormone

a chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs

endocrine system

the organ system that consists of the endocrine glands that secrete hormones into the blood

endocrine gland

a ductless gland that secretes its product (hormone) directly into the blood

pituitary gland or hypophysis

an endocrine gland located below the hypothalmus, consisting of anterior and posterior lobes

myxedema

hyposecretion of thyroxine in an adult; decreased metabolic rate results in physical and mental lethargy

ketoacidosis

a metabolic acidosis that results from the accumalation of ketones in the blood where fats and proteins are used for energy production

Graves Disease

hypersecreation of thyroxine believed to be an autoimmune disease; symptoms reflect the elevated metabolic rate

goiter

an enlargement of the thyroid gland often due to a lack of dietary iodine

giantism

excessive growth of the body or its parts; may be the result of hypersecretion of growth hormone in childhood

diabetes mellitus

hyposecretion of insulin by the pancrease or inability of insulin to exert its effects; characterized by hyperglycemia increased urinary output with glycosuria and thirst

cushings syndrome

hypersecretion of the glucocorticoids of the adrenal cortex, characterized by fragility of skin, poor wound healing, truncal fat deposition, and thin extremities

cretinism

hyposecretion of thyroxine in an infant; if uncorrected the effect is severe mental and physical retardation

addisons disease

the hyposecretion of the hormonesof the adrenal cortex characterized by low blood pressure,dehydration, muscle weakness and mental lethargy

acromegaly

hypersecretion of the growth hormone in an adult resulting in excessive growth of the bones of the face, hands, and feet

target organ or target tissue

the organ or tissue in which a hormone exerts its specific effects

sympathomimetic

having the same effects as a sympathetic impulses as has epinephrine a hormone of the adrenal medulla

Renin-Angiotensin Mechanism

a series of chemical reactions initiated by a decrease in blood pressure that stimulates the kidney to secrete the enzyme renin; culminates in the form of anigiontensin 2

prostaglandins

locally acting hormone-like substances produced by virtually all cells from the phospholipids of their cells membranes; the many types have varried functions

islets of langerhans or pancreatic islets

the endocrine portions of the pancrease that secrete insulin and glucagon

hypophysis

the pituitary gland

hypoglycemia

a low blood glucose level

hypocalcemia

a low blood calcium level

hyperglycemia

a high blood glucose level

hypercalcemia

a high blood calcium level

glycogenolysis

the conversion of stored glycogen to glucose to be used for energy production

glycogenesis

the conversion of glucose to glycogen to be stored as potential energy

gluconeogenesis

the conversion of excess amino acids to simple carbohydrates or to glucose to be used for energy production

glucocorticoids

the hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex that affect the metabolism of nutrients; corotisol is the major hormone of this group

Corpus luteum

the temporary endocrine gland formed from an ovarian follicle that has released an ovum; secretes progesterone and estrogen

catecholamine

epinphrine and norepinephrine the hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla

beta cells

the cells of islets of langerhans that secrete the hormone insulin

alpha cells

the cells of the islets of langerhans of the pancreas that secrete the hormone glucagen

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