the legislature of Great Britain, historically the assembly of the three estates, now composed of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal, forming together the House of Lords, and representatives of the counties, cities, boroughs, and universities, forming the House of Commons
a group of sovereign states and their dependencies associated by their own choice and linked with common objectives and interests
A monarchy in which the powers of the ruler are restricted to those granted under the constitution and laws of the nation
Queen Elizabeth I of England
(1533-1603) became one of the most effective monarchs in British history
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII ruled England from 1509-1547 and remains one of that country's most famous and controversial kings. Henry's hearty appetites and fickle passions are legendary, and his demand for a male heir led him to marry six different women. (Two of those wives, Anne Boleyn and Katharine Howard, were executed on his order.) Henry's divorce from his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, led the king to split with the Catholic Church and found his own church, the Church of England, which in turn set the stage for the English Reformation and for religious battles which lasted for centuries.
the Spanish Armada
The Spanish Armada is the term conventionally applied to a massive fleet dispatched against England by Spain's Catholic King Philip II in 1588, leading to an early and important confrontation in the nearly 20-year Anglo-Spanish War of 1585-1604 (the "Twenty Years' War")
was Lord Protector of England for much of the 1650s, ruling in place of the country's traditional monarchy. In the 1640s a civil war broke out between supporters of King Charles I (the Royalists) and of Parliament (the so-called Roundheads). Cromwell was a Roundhead military leader in a long series of civil war battles, which ended with Charles I imprisoned and finally beheaded in 1649
Charles II of England
(29 May 1630 OS - 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. His father King Charles I was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. The English Parliament did not proclaim Charles II king at this time, passing instead a statute making such a proclamation unlawful. England entered the period known to history as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth and the country was de facto a republic, led by Oliver Cromwell.