Chapter 17: Blood

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Pearson Human Anatomy & Physiology, Marieb/Hoehn

A healthy adult male individual contains about ___ liters of blood.

- 1-2
- 5-6
- 7-8
- 2-3
- 3-4

- 5-6

A major plasma protein that maintains the blood osmotic pressure is

- globulin.
- fibrin.
- fibrinogen.
- angiotensinogen.
- albumin.

- albumin.

Blood group O

- has the AB antigens on its plasma membrane.
- is a universal donor because they can give blood to all other groups.
- does NOT have the anti-A and anti-B antibodies in the serum.
- can receive blood from either group A or B but NOT from group AB.
- is a universal recipient because they can receive blood from all other groups.

- is a universal donor because they can give blood to all other groups.

Diapedesis refers to

- the type of movement erythrocytes use in the tissue spaces.
- the escape of leukocytes from blood vessels into tissue spaces.
- the secretion of chemicals that trigger the inflammatory process.
- the chemical attraction leukocytes use to reach the site of tissue damage.
- the engulfing of foreign bodies by leukocytes.

- the escape of leukocytes from blood vessels into tissue spaces.

During the life cycle of red blood cells,

- the globin portion of hemoglobin is degraded to bilirubin by the liver.
- RBCs are unable to synthesize proteins, grow, or undergo mitotic division.
- RBCs have life span of about 70 -80 days.
- the heme portion of hemoglobin is broken down to amino acids.
- old red blood cells are destroyed by the macrophages in the kidneys.

- RBCs are unable to synthesize proteins, grow, or undergo mitotic division.

Granulocytes do NOT include

- basophils.
- neutrophils.
- PMN.
- monocytes.
- eosinophils.

- monocytes.

Mature red blood cells in the circulating blood are filled with

- lysosomes.
- hemoglobin molecules.
- nuclei and all other cellular organelles.
- smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
- mitochondria.

- hemoglobin molecules.

Pernicious anemia may result from

- rupture of red blood cells due to parasites.
- abnormal production of hemoglobin due to genetic defect.
- the lack of vitamin B12 in diet or deficiency of intrinsic factor needed to absorb B12.
- excessive bleeding.
- the absent or depressed synthesis of globin chains.

- the lack of vitamin B12 in diet or deficiency of intrinsic factor needed to absorb B12.

Renal dialysis patients usually suffer from anemia because

- a large number of RBCs are lost with urine.
- the life span of RBCs is shorter in kidney failure patients.
- the failed kidney destroys large number of RBCs.
- their kidneys stop sending the chemical required to stimulate the red bone marrow to cause RBC to mature faster.
- the kidney fails to stimulate the red bone marrow.

- their kidneys stop sending the chemical required to stimulate the red bone marrow to cause RBC to mature faster.

The final step in clot formation is

- fibrinogen → fibrin.
- formation of prothrombin activator.
- platelet plug formation.
- prothrombin → thrombin.
- the release of chemical by platelets.

- fibrinogen → fibrin.

The most numerous leukocyte is the

- monocyte.
- neutrophil.
- basophil.
- lymphocyte.
- eosinophil.

- neutrophil.

The terms biconcave and anucleated apply to

- white blood cells.
- leukocytes.
- thrombocytes.
- red blood cells.
- platelets.

- red blood cells.

When red blood cells transport respiratory gases

- both oxygen and carbon dioxide combine to the globin portion.
- carbon dioxide binds to the heme portion and oxygen binds to the globin portion.
- both oxygen and carbon dioxide combine to the heme portion.
- oxygen binds to the heme portion while carbon dioxide binds to the globin portion.

- oxygen binds to the heme portion while carbon dioxide binds to the globin portion.

Which leukocyte contains histamine in its granules?

- Monocytes
- Basophils
- Neutrophils
- Eosinophils
- Lymphocytes

- Basophils

Which of the following is a protective function of blood?

- Preventing infection
- Maintaining normal pH in the body
- Delivering oxygen from the lungs to all body tissues
- Maintaining normal body temperature
- Transporting hormones from endocrine organs to target tissues

- Preventing infection

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of blood?

- Its temperature is slightly higher than the body's temperature.
- Blood is thicker than water.
- The pH of blood varies between 7.15 to 7.25.
- The color of blood varies from scarlet red to dark red.

- The pH of blood varies between 7.15 to 7.25.

Which of the following statements about platelets is INCORRECT?

- Platelets are essential for clotting process.
- Platelets are fragments of a larger cell called megakaryocyte.
- The life span of platelets is 30 to 60 days.
- The formation of platelets is regulated by the hormone thrombopoietin.
- Platelets contain serotonin, ADP, calcium and PDGF.

- The life span of platelets is 30 to 60 days.

Which property do white blood cells have in common?

- All WBC are granulocytes.
- WBC are nucleated and have a protective function.
- All WBC have phagocytic function.
- WBC transport oxygen.

- WBC are nucleated and have a protective function.

Which statement is NOT a factor in stimulating the production of erythropoietin by the kidneys?

- Living in a high altitude climate
- Living by the sea coast
- Inflammation of lung tissue as in pneumonia
- Excessive bleeding
- Excessive destruction of RBCs

- Living by the sea coast

Individuals with malaria have a better chance of surviving if they have the following type of anemia.

- Athlete's anemia
- Hemorrhagic anemia
- Iron-deficiency anemia
- Sickle-cell anemia
- Aplastic anemia

- Sickle-cell anemia

Which of the following types of white blood cells kills parasitic worms; destroys antibody complexes; and inactivates some inflammatory chemicals of allergy?

- Eosinophil
- Neutrophil
- Monocytes
- Basophil
- Lymphocytes

- Eosinophil

Which of the following is a function of neutrophils?

- Release histamine and other mediators of inflammation
- Seal small tears in blood vessels
- Phagocytize bacteria
- Kill parasitic worms
- Mount immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies

- Phagocytize bacteria

Which of the following is a function of erythrocytes?

- Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
- Kill parasitic worms
- Phagocytize bacteria
- Mount immune response
- Release histamine

- Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide

Which of the following is a function of basophils?

- Transport blood gases
- Release histamine during allergic reaction
- Mount immune response
- Kill parasites
- Phagocytize bacteria

- Release histamine during allergic reaction

Which of the following would NOT normally be found in circulating blood?

- Neutrophil
- Electrolytes
- Normoblast
- Erythrocyte

- Normoblast

Which of the following is a function of lymphocytes?

- Destruction of virus containing cells
- Produce albumin
- Maintain body temperature
- Carry oxygen
- Regulate pH

- Destruction of virus containing cells

Which of the following is a function of fibrinogen?

- Phagocytize bacteria
- Maintain blood volume
- Regulate pH
- Transport blood gases
- Polymerization

- Polymerization

The percentage of total volume used to determine the number of erythrocytes in a blood sample is referred to as the

- hematocrit.
- reticulocyte count.
- red blood cell count.
- ESR

- hematocrit.

The buffy coat that appears after a sample of blood has been centrifuged contains

- plasma.
- serum.
- RBCs.
- WBCs.

- WBCs.

Which of the following statements about whole blood is incorrect?

- It is five times more viscous than water due to the presence of proteins in the plasma.
- It is slightly alkaline at room temperature.
- It accounts for about 8% of the body weight.
- It has a metallic taste.

- It is five times more viscous than water due to the presence of proteins in the plasma.

The RBC biconcave shape is maintained by a protein known as

- gamma globulins.
- hemoglobin.
- albumin.
- spectrin.

- spectrin.

Which of the following plasma proteins are not produced by the liver?

- fibrinogen
- beta globulins
- albumin
- gamma globulin

- gamma globulin

Which of the following factors has the greatest effect on making RBCs very efficient oxygen transporters?

- They don't contain a nucleus.
- They generate ATP by anaerobic mechanisms and do not consume any of the oxygen they carry.
- They represent most of the formed elements in the blood.
- They carry 20% of the carbon dioxide released by tissues back to the lungs.

- They generate ATP by anaerobic mechanisms and do not consume any of the oxygen they carry.

All of the following would occur if hemoglobin was free in the plasma rather than being contained in the erythrocyte except that the

- viscosity of blood would increase.
- osmotic pressure of blood would increase.
- hemoglobin would be more stable.
- hemoglobin would leak out of the blood stream.

- hemoglobin would be more stable.

Another term for reduced hemoglobin is

- oxyhemoglobin.
- hemoglobin S.
- deoxyhemoglobin.
- carbaminohemoglobin.

- deoxyhemoglobin.

The first step in formation of a mature RBC from a hemocytoblast is the

- differentiation of a myeloid stem cell to a proerythroblast
- differentiation of a basophilic erythroblast into a normoblast.
- development of a reticulocyte from a normoblast.
- proerythroblast differentiated into a reticulocyte.

- differentiation of a myeloid stem cell to a proerythroblast

Which of the following substances does not contain iron?

- hemosiderin
- transferrin
- bilirubin
- ferritin

- bilirubin

____________ is an illustration of iron deficiency seen in individuals who have expanded their blood by increased activity.

- Microcytic anemia
- Athlete's anemia
- Macrocytic anemia
- Sickle cell anemia

- Athlete's anemia

The process of actively metabolizing oxygen to produce bleach and hydrogen exhibited by polymorphs to kill bacteria is known as

- respiratory burst.
- diapedesis.
- amoeboid movement.
- chemotaxis.

- respiratory burst.

In addition to basophils, _____________ found in connective tissue can release histamine when they bind to IgE antibodies.

- macrophages
- plasma cells
- mast cells
- B-lymphocytes

- mast cells

Which of the following leukocytes is the largest?

- monocytes
- basophils
- eosinophils
- neutrophils

- monocytes

The diagnostic feature of infectious mononucleosis is

- an increase in the size of a monocyte.
- enlarged RBCs.
- an increased number of atypical agranulocytes.
- an increased number of eosinophils.

- an increased number of atypical agranulocytes.

Which of the following substances is responsible for limiting a platelet plug to the immediate area of damage?

- prostacyclin
- thromboxane A 2
- adenosine diphosphate
- serotonin

- prostacyclin

Factor XIII is known as the

- antihemophilic factor.
- heparin.
- fibrinogen.
- fibrin stabilizing factor.

- fibrin stabilizing factor.

Erythroblastosis fetalis is due to

- loss of blood by the fetus.
- Rh incompatibility between an Rh-negative mother and her Rh-positive baby during pregnancy.
- increase in the number of erythrocytes in the newborn.
- malfunction of the thymus during fetal development.

- Rh incompatibility between an Rh-negative mother and her Rh-positive baby during pregnancy.

Which of the following plasma expanders would be associated with the least complications.

- Ringer's solution
- dextran
- human serum albumin
- hetastarch

- Ringer's solution

Which of the following has the most affinity for oxygen?

- Hemoglobin S
- blood substitute.
- Hemoglobin A
- Hemoglobin F.

- Hemoglobin F.

Prefluorinated hydrocarbon chains can be used instead of

- hemoglobin.
- antibodies.
- thrombocytes.
- leukocytes.

- hemoglobin.

85% of Americans carry the ______ Rh agglutinogen on their RBCs.

- C
- K
- E
- D

- D

Preformed antibodies to the ABO blood group antigens first appear in a

- two-month-old baby.
- fetus.
- newborn.
- a two-year-old toddler.

- two-month-old baby.

Which antibodies would be found in the serum of a person with AB blood?

- anti-A antibodies
- Both anti-B and anti-A antibodies.
- no antibodies to the AB antigens
- anti-B antibodies

- no antibodies to the AB antigens

The percentage of blood volume occupied by erythrocytes is called the ________.


- buffy coat
- hematocrit
- blood volume
- hemostat

- hematocrit

Which of the following is not a role of albumin?


- It acts as a carrier molecule.
- It acts as a blood buffer.
- It serves an immune system function.
- It contributes to plasma osmotic pressure.

- It serves an immune system function.

Which of the following is a characteristic of a mature erythrocyte?


- It has mitochondria.
- It has a biconcave disc shape.
- It is comprised mostly of albumin and water.
- It has a nucleus.

- It has a biconcave disc shape.

One molecule of hemoglobin can bind a maximum of _____ oxygen molecules.


- six
- eight
- two
- four

- four

Erythropoiesis is best defined as:


- leukocyte production.
- albumin production.
- platelet production.
- red blood cell production.

- red blood cell production.

Erythropoietin is made primarily by the:


- pancreas.
- pituitary gland.
- kidneys.
- spleen.

- kidneys.

Aging red blood cells are fragmented and trapped in the:


- kidneys.
- intestines.
- liver.
- spleen.

- spleen.

A patient who lacks intrinsic factor would likely develop:


- pernicious anemia.
- aplastic anemia.
- hemorrhagic anemia.
- sickle-cell anemia.

- pernicious anemia.

The migration of white blood cells out of the capillary blood vessels is called:


- transcytosis.
- diapedesis.
- leukocytosis.
- active transport.

- diapedesis.

Which of the following is considered a lymphocyte?


- Basophil
- B cell
- Neutrophil
- Macrophage

- B cell

Overproduction of white blood cells is called:


- leukopenia.
- leukopoiesis.
- leukocytosis.
- polycythemia.

- leukocytosis.

Platelets are derived from:


- megakaryocytes.
- lymphocytes.
- band cells.
- monocytes.

- megakaryocytes.

Which of the following shows the correct sequence of hemostasis from start to end?


- Vascular spasm, coagulation, platelet plug formation
- Coagulation, vascular spasm, platelet plug formation
- Platelet plug formation, vascular spasm, coagulation
- Vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation

- Vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation

Which of the following is true regarding the extrinsic pathway of blood clotting?


- The extrinsic pathway is independent of procoagulants.
- The extrinsic pathway is slower than the intrinsic pathway of blood clotting.
- The extrinsic pathway is triggered by tissue factor.
- The extrinsic pathway does not involve calcium ions.

- The extrinsic pathway is triggered by tissue factor.

Blood type is determined by:


- glycoproteins present in the plasma.
- glycoproteins present on the surface of erythrocytes.
- antibodies present on the surface of erythrocytes.
- antibodies present in the plasma.

- glycoproteins present on the surface of erythrocytes.

Choose the true statement about fetal hemoglobin.


- Fetal hemoglobin is called hemoglobin A.
- Fetal hemoglobin contains four alpha chains.
- Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than does adult hemoglobin.
- Fetal hemoglobin is produced until the baby is one year old.

- Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than does adult hemoglobin.

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